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Borja Muniz-Pardos, Alejandro Gómez-Bruton, Ángel Matute-Llorente, Alex González-Agüero, Alba Gómez-Cabello, José A. Casajús and Germán Vicente-Rodríguez

Purpose: To examine the effects of a 6-month whole-body vibration (WBV) training on lower-body strength (LBS), lower-body power (LBP), and swimming performance in adolescent trained swimmers. Methods: Thirty-seven swimmers (23 males and 14 females; 14.8 [1.3] y) were randomly assigned to the WBV (n = 20) or the control group (n = 17). Isometric LBS (knee extension and half squat) and LBP (vertical and horizontal jumps and 30-m sprint) tests were performed before and after the intervention period. Swimming performance times in 100 m were collected from official competitions. As time × sex interaction was not found for any variable (P > .05), males and females were analyzed as a whole. Results: Within-group analyses showed a most likely beneficial moderate effect of WBV on isometric knee extension (effect size [ES] = 0.63), 30-m sprint test (ES = 0.62), and 100-m performance (ES = 0.25), although these were corresponded with comparable small to moderate effects in the control group (ES = 0.73, 0.71, and 0.20, respectively). The control group obtained a small possibly beneficial effect of swimming-only training on vertical jump performance, whereas no effect was observed in the WBV group. Unclear effects were observed for the rest of the variables assessed. Between-group analyses revealed unclear effects of WBV training when compared with the control condition in all studied variables. Conclusions: There is no current evidence to support the use of WBV training, and therefore, coaches and sports specialists should select other methods of training when the aim is to increase LBS, LBP, or swimming performance.

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Nili Steinberg, Roger Adams, Oren Tirosh, Janet Karin and Gordon Waddington

dancers with lower proprioceptive ability improved their acute (short term) ability to judge inversion movements, up to the level of dancers with good ability, by wearing textured insoles. 21 , 22 Measuring the short-term chronic effect and the long-term chronic effect of using textured insoles, both in

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

unclear, and the ratings of perceived exertion (RPEs) have not yet been evaluated during a full season of competition under CWI effects. 23 The aim of this study was to investigate the chronic effect of CWI, applied immediately after every match and after every training session before matches, on

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Stephen A. Mears, Kathryn Dickinson, Kurt Bergin-Taylor, Reagan Dee, Jack Kay and Lewis J. James

subjects, and this largely comprised low-intensity or short-duration rides. As the results appeared to be driven by psychological determinants, it would be of interest to study a chronic effect of fasted high-intensity training to determine if cyclists could become accustomed to the effort and alter their

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Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort and Shane Heffernan

selected players were exposed to both the PBC and control conditions between 10 AM and 12 PM. Players were administered PBC for 12 weeks (minimum of 9 wk exposure per player) as this was seen as an appropriate period for PBC treatment to elicit a chronic effect, rather an acute response. During the final 3

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Charity B. Breneman, Christopher E. Kline, Delia West, Xuemei Sui and Xuewen Wang

with the study findings among untrained individuals, it may be that the chronic effect of training versus no training rather than the duration of participating in an exercise intervention has a greater impact on the acute effect of exercise on sleep. Meta-analyses have not examined whether “training

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Ian M. Greenlund, Piersan E. Suriano, Steven J. Elmer, Jason R. Carter and John J. Durocher

(cfPWV), 11 often considered the gold standard assessment of arterial health with applanation tonometry. 12 To date, no published studies have reported the chronic effects of standing desk use on PWV. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the chronic effect of standing desk use on

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Jason C. Immekus, Franklin Muntis and Daniela Terson de Paleville

. , & Martínez-López , E. ( 2018 ). Acute and chronic effect of physical activity on cognition and behaviour in young people with ADHD: A systematic review of intervention studies . Research in Developmental Disability, 3 ( 77 ), 12 – 23 . doi: 10.1016/j.ridd.2018.03.015 Syväoja , H. , Kantomaa , M

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Louise M. Burke, Graeme L. Close, Bronwen Lundy, Martin Mooses, James P. Morton and Adam S. Tenforde

of LEA that results in health and performance consequences be identified? • What strategies can be employed to correct LEA in athletes for health and performance? Cyclists • How do current elite cyclists periodize their body composition and EA over the season? • What is the acute and chronic effect

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Iñigo Mujika, Shona Halson, Louise M. Burke, Gloria Balagué and Damian Farrow

to CHO utilization, the chronic effect of very restricted intake of CHO on intestinal CHO uptake would also need to be considered. 132 It is possible that the sudden reintroduction of CHO on race day might exceed the downregulated capacity of gut glucose absorption via sodium