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TaeYeong Kim, JaeHyuk Lee, SeJun Oh, Seungmin Kim and BumChul Yoon

in a supine, prone, or side-lying position. Acknowledgments The authors would like to thank all the participants who volunteered for this study. No competing financial relationships exist. References 1. Meucci RD , Fassa AG , Xavier Faria NM . Prevalence of chronic low back pain: systematic

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Fatemeh Azadinia, Ismail Ebrahimi-Takamjani, Mojtaba Kamyab, Morteza Asgari and Mohamad Parnianpour

.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.05.004 10.1016/j.clinbiomech.2009.05.004 Della Volpe , R. , Popa , T. , Ginanneschi , F. , Spidalieri , R. , Mazzocchio , R. , & Rossi , A. ( 2006 ). Changes in coordination of postural control during dynamic stance in chronic low back pain patients . Gait & Posture

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Rasool Bagheri, Ismail Ebrahimi Takamjani, Mohammad R. Pourahmadi, Elham Jannati, Sayyed H. Fazeli, Rozita Hedayati and Mahmood Akbari

Chronic low back pain (CLBP) is a very common disorder. Despite its prevalence, no specific causes can be found for almost 85% of the CLBP cases. 1 Therefore, this type of low back pain (LBP) is known as nonspecific chronic low back pain (NCLBP) which is a multifactorial condition and can result

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Ali Jalalvand and Mehrdad Anbarian

GRFs acting on the body during landings have been associated with injury to the lower limb. 9 In addition, chronic low back pain (CLBP) can seriously impact functional ability. People with CLBP are at increased risk of LEI. As a result, a previous history of LBP is a significant predictor of ACL

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Kathleen K. Hogan, William O. Perkins, Cameron J. Powden, and Matthew C. Hoch

Clinical Scenario:

Chronic low back pain is one of the most common causes of pain and disability. Currently, there is a need for more effective interventions to treat low back pain.

Clinical Question:

Does the use of custom foot orthotics improve self-reported measures of pain and function in adults with chronic low back pain?

Summary of Key Findings:

A comprehensive and systematic search was conducted for studies of level 2 evidence or higher that pertained to the clinical question. The search yielded 11 studies, of which one randomized control trial and two prospective cohorts fit the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The articles examined the effectiveness of custom foot orthotics in isolation compared with no treatment as well as custom foot orthotics in combination with usual care compared with usual care alone. The included studies all demonstrated that the use of custom foot orthotics reduce chronic low back pain after seven weeks of use. One included study was considered high-quality evidence while two were deemed low-quality evidence using the PEDro.

Clinical Bottom Line:

There is moderate evidence to support the use of custom foot orthotics to improve self-reported measures in adults with chronic low back pain after seven weeks of use.

Strength of Recommendation:

The Strength of Recommendation Taxonomy recommends a grade of B for consistent limited-quality patient-oriented evidence.

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Priscila Abbári Rossi Manciopi, Natalia Madalena Rinaldi and Renato Moraes

Low back pain (LBP) can affect performance in the combined task (CT) of gait and prehension, since it increases muscle activity amplitude during voluntary movements, impairs the anticipatory postural adjustments and reduces gait speed. We analyzed and compared the effect of adding the prehension movement toward a dowel located at three different heights (80, 100 and 120% of the lower limb length) on gait of individuals with and without LBP. The CT caused anticipatory adjustments, showing that gait changes started during the approach phase and continued on the step corresponding to grasping, especially for the lowest dowel height. Furthermore, individuals with LBP reduced walking speed, increased the width of the base of support, increased electromyography activity of low back trunk muscles, and increased the margin of dynamic stability compared with control group. These results suggest that individuals with LBP used a strategy to reduce threat to body stability due to addition of the manual task.

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Fatemeh Ehsani, Rozita Hedayati, Rasool Bagheri and Shapour Jaberzadeh

that the deep trunk muscles thickness was increased after a program of GE in patients with chronic low back pain (CLBP). 17 , 26 Standing on unstable support surfaces is a common postural challenge occurring in a large numbers of functional activities, such as walking, running, and stair climbing. 22

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Kathleen J. Ashmen, C. Buz Swanik and Scott M. Lephart

The purpose of this study was to identify strength and flexibility deficits in subjects with chronic low-back pain (CLBP). Subjects were 16 female Division I athletes: 8 athletes who had experienced CLBP for at least 6 months prior to testing and a control group of 8 matched subjects. Athletes with neurological symptoms, previous back operations, and leg length discrepancies and those who were diagnosed with scoliosis, spondylolisthesis, or spondylolysis were excluded from this study. Variables assessed included abdominal strength, erector spinae endurance, hip flexion and extension endurance, torso lateral flexibility, and low-back flexibility. Strength and endurance were calculated as a function of time in seconds. Goniometric measurements were used to determine flexibility. Significant mean differences were found by using dependent t tests for abdominal strength, erector Spinae endurance, hip extension, and right lateral flexion of the torso. The results validate the necessity for pelvic stabilization and indicate that strength and flexibility deficits vary among populations.

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Maria Moussouli, Symeon P. Vlachopoulos, Nikolaos D. Kofotolis, Yannis Theodorakis, Paraskevi Malliou and Eleftherios Kellis

Background:

The study examined the effects of a 4-week intensive isometric and isotonic stabilization exercise program on dimensions of health-related quality of life (HRQL) in women with chronic low back pain (CLBP).

Methods:

A total of 39 women (27–72 years old) provided data in an experimental study with a 9-month follow-up. Random allocation was undertaken for the two treatment groups out of the 3 groups: isometric stabilization (n = 13), isotonic stabilization (n = 13), and a control group (n = 13) that did not participate in any form of exercise. Health-related quality of life measures using the Short-Form 36 Health Survey were assessed before program initiation, immediately after program termination, and 4 times postintervention for a period of 9 months.

Results:

The isometric stabilization group displayed large improvements in bodily pain and vitality for women with CLBP attending a 4-week intensive isometric stabilization exercise program. The effects were retained for a period of 9 months after program termination.

Conclusions:

Isometric stabilization exercises reduce pain and enhance vitality as dimensions of HRQL among women with chronic low back pain with such effects lasting for at least 9 months.

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Akram Muharram, Wenge Liu, Zhenyu Wang, Lei Sun and Weifen Wu

Edited by Lindsey E. Eberman