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Emily R. Hunt and Melissa C. Day

( Howe, 2004 ). For some injured individuals pain may be acute, lasting for a limited period of time. Yet for others, pain may become a pathological process, present for months or even years after injury ( Howe, 2004 ). Research has identified three types of chronic pain: chronic-recurrent pain, chronic

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton and Cormac Ryan

preregistration pain education methods are evaluated. A particular model of pain education is pain neuroscience education (PNE). The PNE has primarily been used as an intervention for patients with chronic pain. PNE uses current understanding of neuroscience to help reconceptualize the experience of pain. The aim

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Kaitlyn C. Jones, Evelyn C. Tocco, Ashley N. Marshall, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod and Cailee E. Welch Bacon

-LBP, such as the treatment-based classification system, do not necessarily translate to chronic pain and notably do not take psychosocial factors into consideration. 9 Therapeutic exercise is a low-risk and effective treatment option for chronic pain, which can be utilized by all rehabilitation clinicians

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

Key Points ▸ Fear-avoidance and the pain tension cycle contribute to chronic pain. ▸ Massage may modulate physiological and psychological factors associated with pain postinjury. ▸ Breaking the pain tension cycle facilitates progression in rehabilitation and earlier recovery. Pain is often

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Andrea Weber and Herb Amato

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C. Jessie Jones, Carter Rakovski, Dana Rutledge and Angela Gutierrez

Purpose:

To compare fitness of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) aged 50+ with performance standards associated with functional independence in late life.

Methods:

Data came from a longitudinal study tracking physical and cognitive function of 93 women with FMS and included the most recent symptoms, activity levels, and fitness assessments.

Results:

Most women performed below criterion-referenced fitness standards for all measures. Nearly 90% percent of those < 70 years scored below the standard for lower body strength. Only ~20% of respondents < 70 years old met the criteria for aerobic endurance. A third of those aged over 70 met the standard in agility and dynamic balance. Physical activity was positively associated with fitness performance, while pain and depression symptoms were negatively associated.

Discussion:

High proportions of women with FMS do not meet fitness standards recommended for maintaining physical independence in late life, indicating a risk for disability. Regular fitness assessments and targeted exercise interventions are warranted.

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C. Jessie Jones, Dana N. Rutledge and Jordan Aquino

The purposes of this study were to determine whether people with and without fibromyalgia (FM) age 50 yr and above showed differences in physical performance and perceived functional ability and to determine whether age, gender, depression, and physical activity level altered the impact of FM status on these factors. Dependent variables included perceived function and 6 performance measures (multidimensional balance, aerobic endurance, overall functional mobility, lower body strength, and gait velocity—normal or fast). Independent (predictor) variables were FM status, age, gender, depression, and physical activity level. Results indicated significant differences between adults with and without FM on all physical-performance measures and perceived function. Linear-regression models showed that the contribution of significant predictors was in expected directions. All regression models were significant, accounting for 16–65% of variance in the dependent variables.

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Laurie Y. Hung, Emmalee Maracle, John Z. Srbely and Stephen H.M. Brown

Evidence has shown that upper limb muscles peripheral to the cervical spine, such as the biceps brachii, can demonstrate functional deficits in the presence of chronic neck pain. However, few studies have examined how neck pain can affect the fatigability of upper limb muscles; therefore we were motivated to investigate the effects of acutely induced neuropathic neck pain on the fatigability of the biceps brachii muscle during isometric contraction to exhaustion. Topical capsaicin was used to induce neck pain in 11 healthy male participants. Surface EMG signals were recorded from the biceps brachii during an isometric elbow flexion fatigue task in which participants held a weight equivalent to 30% of their MVC until exhaustion. Two experimental sessions, one placebo and one capsaicin, were conducted separated by two days. EMG mean power frequency and average normalized activation values were calculated over the course of the fatigue task. In the presence of pain, there was no statistically significant effect on EMG parameters during fatigue of the biceps brachii. These results demonstrate that acutely induced neuropathic neck pain does not affect the fatigability, under the tested conditions, of the biceps brachii.

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Marc-Olivier St-Aubin, Philippe Chalaye, François-Pierre Counil and Sylvie Lafrenaye

depression, anxiety) ( 27 , 35 ), and improved cognitive function ( 38 ). Importantly, physical exercise programs have been shown to reduce pain in various chronic pain conditions, such as chronic low back pain ( 1 ), chronic neck pain ( 43 ), osteoarthritis ( 19 ), migraine ( 8 ), and fibromyalgia ( 16

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Laura D. Ellingson, Paul R. Hibbing, Gregory J. Welk, Dana Dailey, Barbara A. Rakel, Leslie J. Crofford, Kathleen A. Sluka and Laura A. Frey-Law

are providing accurate information. This sample of middle-aged women with fibromyalgia included in the present study was recruited for a clinical trial to examine the effectiveness of a non-pharmacologic treatment for pain. Prior studies have shown that chronic pain patients are typically less