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Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman

in American football or other contact sports causes a neurodegenerative brain disease called chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). One such report revealed that from 2002 to 2009, 17 retired National Football League (NFL) players suffered from CTE, which is believed to be caused by repeated blows

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Roya Saffary, Lawrence S. Chin and Robert C. Cantu

Sports-related activities account for an estimated 10% of head and spinal cord injuries. In recent years, concussion in particular has garnered more interest in the medical field as well as the media. Reports of athletes suffering from long-term cognitive deficits and Parkinsonian symptoms have sparked concern in a disease process that has often been underestimated or ignored. As more reports surface, the desperate need for a better understanding of the neuropathology has been made clear. In addition to the concern for acute injury, long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are feared consequences of concussive injuries. Research studies have shown significant overlap in the neuropathology between CTE and chronic neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, tau protein deposition has been found to be present in both disease processes and may play an important part in the clinical findings observed. The present review discusses concussion and our current understanding of pathological findings that may underlie the clinical features associated with concussive injuries and resulting chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

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Emma S. Ariyo

professional athletes; and how the medical community, the public, and the National Football League are working together to address with the issue of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and other trauma related to football head injuries. Overall, the book Great Expectations provides important insight into

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

concussions. The results of neuropsychological testing have indicated that cognitive deficits may linger long after symptoms have resolved. 15 – 18 Progressive changes in a concussed brain may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that results in manifestation of symptoms years even decades after

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Gregory A. Cranmer and Sara LaBelle

sporting culture and athletic teams in an effort to address this public health concern. Notes 1. The long-term effects of concussions, especially those associated with chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE), are the result of not any single concussion but, rather, repeated head trauma over a period of time

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Dominic Malcolm

) players have been found to be three times more likely than the general population to suffer a neurodegenerative disease ( Partridge & Hall, 2014 , p. 2); data has recently emerged to suggest that soccer players may develop similar forms of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) – defined as ‘a

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

brain injuries (see Covassin, Stearne, & Elbin, 2008 ; De Beaumont et al., 2009 ; Guskiewicz, Ross, & Marshall, 2001 ; Guskiewicz et al., 2005 , 2007 ; Lehman, Hein, Baron, & Gersic, 2012 ; McCrory et al., 2013 ; Moser, 2007 ). Additionally, as concerns surrounding chronic traumatic

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Nikolaus A. Dean

and work . Walnut Creek, CA : Left Coast Press . Gaetz , M. ( 2017 ). The multi-factorial origins of chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) symptomology in post-career athletes: The athlete post-career adjustment (AP-CA) model . Medical Hypotheses, 102 , 130 – 143 . PubMed ID: 28478818 doi

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Kathryn L. Heinze and Di Lu

from three primary sources: disruptive events, independent researchers, and the media. Disruptive events in this period were more serious than those in the prior one. Five high-profile former professional football players died and were subsequently diagnosed as having chronic traumatic encephalopathy