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Roya Saffary, Lawrence S. Chin and Robert C. Cantu

Sports-related activities account for an estimated 10% of head and spinal cord injuries. In recent years, concussion in particular has garnered more interest in the medical field as well as the media. Reports of athletes suffering from long-term cognitive deficits and Parkinsonian symptoms have sparked concern in a disease process that has often been underestimated or ignored. As more reports surface, the desperate need for a better understanding of the neuropathology has been made clear. In addition to the concern for acute injury, long-term sequelae such as chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) are feared consequences of concussive injuries. Research studies have shown significant overlap in the neuropathology between CTE and chronic neurodegenerative processes such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD). In particular, tau protein deposition has been found to be present in both disease processes and may play an important part in the clinical findings observed. The present review discusses concussion and our current understanding of pathological findings that may underlie the clinical features associated with concussive injuries and resulting chronic traumatic encephalopathy.

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Tywan G. Martin, Jessica Wallace, Young Ik Suh, Kysha Harriell and Justin Tatman

in American football or other contact sports causes a neurodegenerative brain disease called chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). One such report revealed that from 2002 to 2009, 17 retired National Football League (NFL) players suffered from CTE, which is believed to be caused by repeated blows

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Steven P. Broglio

Sport concussion has been thrust into the national spotlight with growing concern over both the acute and chronic risk for injury. While much has been learned and applied to medical practice in the previous decade, how the injury may affect individuals years later remains largely unknown. The opaqueness of the unknown has led some to ask if certain sports should be banned. Without immediate answers, what is currently known must be extrapolated and the risks and benefits of sport participation must be balanced.

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Jason P. Shurley and Janice S. Todd

In recent years there has been a significant increase in the scrutiny of head trauma in football. This attention is due largely to a host of studies that have been highly publicized and linked the repetitive head trauma in football to late-life neurological impairment. Scientists and physicians familiar with boxing have been aware of such impairment, resulting from repeated head impacts, for more than 80 years. Few, however, made the connection between the similarity of head impacts in boxing and football until recent decades. This article examines the medical and scientific literature related to head trauma in both boxing and football, paying particular attention to the different emphases of that research. Further, the literature is used to trace the understanding of sport-related chronic head trauma as well as how that understanding has prompted reform efforts in each sport. Finally, in light of the current understanding of the long-term sequelae of repetitive head trauma, some consideration is given to what football administrators can learn from the reform efforts in boxing.

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Paul M. Pedersen

championships) balances tradition and commercialism, how media coverage of sport-related concussions and chronic traumatic encephalopathy influences public perceptions, and how the media and the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA, with signage for its organizational headquarters featured in the

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Jian Chen, Bruce Oddson and Heather C. Gilbert

concussions. The results of neuropsychological testing have indicated that cognitive deficits may linger long after symptoms have resolved. 15 – 18 Progressive changes in a concussed brain may lead to chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) that results in manifestation of symptoms years even decades after

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Emma S. Ariyo

professional athletes; and how the medical community, the public, and the National Football League are working together to address with the issue of Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) and other trauma related to football head injuries. Overall, the book Great Expectations provides important insight into

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Yoon Heo

disease called CTE (chronic traumatic encephalopathy). Travis R. Bell, a former sports broadcast journalist, is an assistant professor of digital and sport media in the Zimmerman School of Advertising & Mass Communications at the University of South Florida. Janelle Applequist is in the same school as an

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

encounter outcomes . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 50 ( 5 ), 992 . PubMed 10.1037/0022-3514.50.5.992 Gardner , A. , Iverson , G.L. , & McCrory , P. ( 2013 ). Chronic traumatic encephalopathy in sport: A systematic review . British Journal of Sports Medicine, 48 ( 2 ), 84 – 90

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Cindy N. Nguyen, Reuben N. Clements, Lucas A. Porter, Nicole E. Clements, Matthew D. Gray, Dustin J. Killian and Russell T. Baker

to activity, they may run the risk of developing serious conditions, such as postconcussion syndrome or second impact syndrome. 10 Researchers have also found that there is a higher risk of developing chronic traumatic encephalopathy or progressive degeneration of the brain. 9 Due to the potential