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Emily R. Hunt and Melissa C. Day

( Howe, 2004 ). For some injured individuals pain may be acute, lasting for a limited period of time. Yet for others, pain may become a pathological process, present for months or even years after injury ( Howe, 2004 ). Research has identified three types of chronic pain: chronic-recurrent pain, chronic

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Neil Maguire, Paul Chesterton, and Cormac Ryan

preregistration pain education methods are evaluated. A particular model of pain education is pain neuroscience education (PNE). The PNE has primarily been used as an intervention for patients with chronic pain. PNE uses current understanding of neuroscience to help reconceptualize the experience of pain. The aim

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Meaghan Hindle, Katherine Aldinger, and Geoff Dover

Chronic pain is a significant health care problem, and it is a challenge in Athletic Training and Athletic Therapy (AT) as well. It has been estimated that 57% of all adult Americans report recurrent or chronic pain in a calendar year. 1 Approximately 62% of those people reported being in pain for

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Hansel R. García-Correa, Lida J. Sánchez-Montoya, Jorge E. Daza-Arana, and Leidy T. Ordoñez-Mora

gained considerable importance. 7 , 8 The literature highlights this approach as a preventive action because of the complications associated with the progression of illness leading to chronic pain. 2 , 8 – 10 But decrease in pain cannot be attributed solely to physical exercise because different

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Kaitlyn C. Jones, Evelyn C. Tocco, Ashley N. Marshall, Tamara C. Valovich McLeod, and Cailee E. Welch Bacon

-LBP, such as the treatment-based classification system, do not necessarily translate to chronic pain and notably do not take psychosocial factors into consideration. 9 Therapeutic exercise is a low-risk and effective treatment option for chronic pain, which can be utilized by all rehabilitation clinicians

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Emily R. Hunt, Shelby E. Baez, Anne D. Olson, Timothy A. Butterfield, and Esther Dupont-Versteegden

Key Points ▸ Fear-avoidance and the pain tension cycle contribute to chronic pain. ▸ Massage may modulate physiological and psychological factors associated with pain postinjury. ▸ Breaking the pain tension cycle facilitates progression in rehabilitation and earlier recovery. Pain is often

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Gina E. McAlear and Jennifer K. Popp

by trauma, fracture, or surgery, but can also occur spontaneously. Each case results in significant functional morbidity, and treatment is difficult. 2 , 6 In 2010, the Committee for Classification of Chronic Pain of the International Association for the Study of Pain (IASP) published clinical

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Andrea Weber and Herb Amato

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C. Jessie Jones, Dana N. Rutledge, and Jordan Aquino

The purposes of this study were to determine whether people with and without fibromyalgia (FM) age 50 yr and above showed differences in physical performance and perceived functional ability and to determine whether age, gender, depression, and physical activity level altered the impact of FM status on these factors. Dependent variables included perceived function and 6 performance measures (multidimensional balance, aerobic endurance, overall functional mobility, lower body strength, and gait velocity—normal or fast). Independent (predictor) variables were FM status, age, gender, depression, and physical activity level. Results indicated significant differences between adults with and without FM on all physical-performance measures and perceived function. Linear-regression models showed that the contribution of significant predictors was in expected directions. All regression models were significant, accounting for 16–65% of variance in the dependent variables.

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C. Jessie Jones, Carter Rakovski, Dana Rutledge, and Angela Gutierrez


To compare fitness of women with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) aged 50+ with performance standards associated with functional independence in late life.


Data came from a longitudinal study tracking physical and cognitive function of 93 women with FMS and included the most recent symptoms, activity levels, and fitness assessments.


Most women performed below criterion-referenced fitness standards for all measures. Nearly 90% percent of those < 70 years scored below the standard for lower body strength. Only ~20% of respondents < 70 years old met the criteria for aerobic endurance. A third of those aged over 70 met the standard in agility and dynamic balance. Physical activity was positively associated with fitness performance, while pain and depression symptoms were negatively associated.


High proportions of women with FMS do not meet fitness standards recommended for maintaining physical independence in late life, indicating a risk for disability. Regular fitness assessments and targeted exercise interventions are warranted.