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Len De Nys, Esther F. Ofosu, Gemma C. Ryde, Jenni Connelly, and Anna C. Whittaker

physical function ( Heaney et al., 2012a ); low social support; and higher depression, anxiety, and chronic stress ( Heaney et al., 2010 ). Further, Heaney et al. noted that older adults reporting more severe recent stressful events, but low PA, show a higher cortisol:DHEA ratio than those reporting fewer

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Elizabeth Vásquez, Garrett Strizich, Linda Gallo, Simon J. Marshall, Gina C. Merchant, Rosenda Murillo, Frank J. Penedo, Christian Salazar, Daniela Sotres-Alvarez, Benjamin A. Shaw, and Carmen R. Isasi


Chronic stress and/or lifetime traumatic stress can create a self-reinforcing cycle of unhealthy behaviors, such as overeating and sedentary behavior, that can lead to further increases in stress. This study examined the relationship between stress and sedentary behavior in a sample of Hispanic/Latino adults (N = 4244) from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos Sociocultural Ancillary Study.


Stress was measured as the number of ongoing difficulties lasting 6 months or more and as lifetime exposure to traumatic events. Sedentary behavior was measured by self-report and with accelerometer. Multivariable regression models examined associations of stress measures with time spent in sedentary behaviors adjusting by potential confounders.


Those who reported more than one chronic stressor spent, on average, 8 to 10 additional minutes per day in objectively measured sedentary activities (P < .05), whereas those with more than one lifetime traumatic stressor spent (after we adjusted for confounders) 10 to 14 additional minutes in sedentary activities (P < .01) compared with those who did not report any stressors. Statistical interactions between the 2 stress measures and age or sex were not significant.


Interventions aimed at reducing sedentary behaviors might consider incorporating stress reduction into their approaches.

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Raphael Frank, Insa Nixdorf, and Jürgen Beckmann

Findings on burnout and depression in athletes highlight their potential severity. Although both constructs are discussed in similar, stress-based concepts, it is unclear how they relate to each other. To address this issue, we conducted a crosssectional multiple linear regression analysis (MLR; N = 194) and a longitudinal analysis of a three-wave cross-lagged panel (CLP; n = 92) in German junior elite athletes. MLR showed that depression and burnout were both associated with chronic stress. Stress was a significant better predictor for both burnout and depression than each was for the other. CLP analysis on the constructs of burnout and depression revealed support for cross-paths in both directions. Thus, burnout and depression might cause each other to some degree, with no distinct direction of this link. However, as both syndromes do not fully explain each other, interchanging both terms and syndromes should be avoided. Preferably, future research might consider the transfer of knowledge between both syndromes to draw founded conclusions.

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Brook Hadwen, Eva Pila, and Jane Thornton

attributed to altered neurological activity, as hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis dysfunction is common in adults with ACEs. When exposed to chronic stress, this system becomes overactive, releasing too much cortisol into the bloodstream, leading to cortisol resistance. This can negatively impact the

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Sebastian Altfeld, Paul Schaffran, Jens Kleinert, and Michael Kellmann

back pain: Moderating effects of detachment during leisure time]. Zeitschrift für Gesundheitspsychologie, 22 , 129 – 141 .PubMed doi:10.1026/0943-8149/a000121 10.1026/0943-8149/a000121 Miller , G.E. , Chen , E. , & Zhou , E.S. ( 2007 ). If it goes up, must it come down? Chronic stress and

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Buffie Longmire-Avital, Takudzwa Madzima, and Elyse Bierut

chronic stress experienced by Black Americans as a result of racism targeting them as an individual as opposed to institutional or structural racism. Items were modified to reflect language and the contexts of college students. Participants were asked to respond to descriptions of racism-related events by

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Insa Nixdorf, Raphael Frank, Martin Hautzinger, and Juergen Beckmann

Depression among elite athletes is a topic of increasing interest, but empirical data are rare. The present study aimed to provide insight into the prevalence of depressive symptoms among German elite athletes and possible associated factors. In an online survey of 162 athletes, we explored depressive symptoms, chronic stress, coping strategies and stress-recovery states. Results indicated an overall prevalence of 15% for depression among elite athletes (n = 99), and revealed higher levels of depressive symptoms among the individual athletes than the team athletes. Furthermore, correlation analyses showed a significant connection between high levels of depressive symptoms and high levels of chronic stress, negative coping strategies and negative stress-recovery states. Results indicate that the prevalence for depressive symptoms in elite athletes is comparable to that in the general German population. Moreover, exploratory analyses provide first indications of factors associated with depressive symptoms.

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Robert J. Schinke, Randy C. Battochio, Timothy V. Dube, Ronnie Lidor, Gershon Tenenbaum, and Andrew M. Lane

Sport researchers have considered the processes that elite athletes undergo to achieve positive psychological adaptation during significant chronic stressors throughout sport careers and also, acute stressors within important competitions. This review contains a description of competitive and organizational stressors that can hamper an elite athlete’s pursuit of adaptation within the aforementioned circumstances, followed by an identification of the responses that together can foster the desired outcome of adaptation. The authors propose that there are four parts that contribute to an elite athlete’s positive psychological adaptation, presented as parts of a process: (a) the appraisal of stressors, (b) coping strategies, (c) self-regulation strategies, and (d) a consolidated adaptation response. Subsequently, athlete adaptation is considered through examples taken from anecdotal literature and formal research studies pertaining to elite athlete adaptation. Implications are discussed for sport psychologists, mental training consultants, sport scientists, coaches, and athletes.

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Daniel Gould, Suzanne Tuffey, Eileen Udry, and James Loehr

This article reports findings from the second phase of a larger research project designed to examine burnout in competitive junior tennis players. This phase of the project was qualitative in nature and involved two components. First, interviews were conducted with 10 individuals who were identified as being most burned out in the quantitative phase (Phase 1) of the project. Content analyses of the 10 respondents’ interviews identified mental and physical characteristics of burnout, as well as reasons for burning out. Recommendations for preventing burnout in players, parents, and coaches also were gleaned. Second, the 10 individual cases were examined in light of the major tenants of the three existing models of athlete burnout. Results from the examination of the burnout models suggested that burnout is best thought of in terms of Smith’s (1986) chronic stress model with physical and social psychological strains falling under it.

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Luke F. Olsson, Michael C. Grugan, Joseph N. Martin, and Daniel J. Madigan

problematic in itself, the experience of chronic stress can lead to detrimental outcomes for athletes, such as burnout ( Smith, 1986 ). In acknowledging the negative consequences of burnout for athletes, many researchers have sought to determine what may underpin its development in sport (e.g.,  Larson et