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Catherine R. Marinac, Mirja Quante, Sara Mariani, Jia Weng, Susan Redline, Elizabeth M. Cespedes Feliciano, J. Aaron Hipp, Daniel Wang, Emily R. Kaplan, Peter James and Jonathan A. Mitchell

clinic visit and used to calculate BMI (kg/m 2 ). Those with a BMI ≥30 kg/m 2 were defined as obese. Chronotype Chronotype was assessed using the 19-item Horne–Ostberg Morningness–Eveningness Questionnaire. 18 Scores on this scale range from 16 to 86, with higher scores indicating greater morning

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Francisco J. Amaro-Gahete, Lucas Jurado-Fasoli, Alejandro R. Triviño, Guillermo Sanchez-Delgado, Alejandro De-la-O, Jørn W. Helge and Jonatan R. Ruiz

dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (Hologic Discovery Wii; Hologic, Bedford, MA). The participants also completed the HÖME questionnaire, 15 which is a validated questionnaire that determines the participants’ chronotype (morningness–eveningness). The questionnaire consists of 19 questions related to

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Júlio A. Costa, João Brito, Fábio Y. Nakamura, Eduardo M. Oliveira, Ovidio P. Costa and António N. Rebelo

energy stores. 40 Finally, 2 important variables related to late-evening training sessions that could also explain sleep patterns and HRV results are the habitual training time-of-day of the athletes 20 and chronotype 41 , 42 (which characterizes an individual’s circadian rhythmicity). For instance

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Jacopo A. Vitale, Giuseppe Banfi, Andrea Galbiati, Luigi Ferini-Strambi and Antonio La Torre

and quality among athletes, but acute sleep deprivation is not unusual. 2 Several factors, both endogenous and exogenous, are able to negatively influence sleep in athletes: body temperature, altitude, chronotype, training volume, anxiety, westward and eastward travels, and many others. 3 Among all

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Mohamed Romdhani, Nizar Souissi, Yassine Chaabouni, Kacem Mahdouani, Tarak Driss, Karim Chamari and Omar Hammouda

cognitive performance. In addition, the 2 nap opportunities could differently affect the studied parameters. Methods Participants In total, 13 participants fulfilled the inclusion criteria (ie, chronotype, sleep habits, nonhabitual napper, nonsmoker, and free of drugs) and completed the experimental

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Natashia Swalve, Brianna Harfmann, John Mitrzyk and Alexander H. K. Montoye

where they self-reported demographic information (age, handedness, weight, and height), and the Munich Chronotype Questionnaire ( Zavada, Gordijn, Beersma, Daan, & Roenneberg, 2005 ). Research staff programmed the activity monitors with demographic data from the participants and fitted participants with

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Andressa Silva, Fernanda V. Narciso, Igor Soalheiro, Fernanda Viegas, Luísa S.N. Freitas, Adriano Lima, Bruno A. Leite, Haroldo C. Aleixo, Rob Duffield and Marco T. de Mello

. 2015 ; 21 ( 2 ): 168 – 176 . doi: 10.1590/S1980-65742015000200007 3. Silva A , Queiroz SS , Winckler C , et al . Sleep quality evaluation, chronotype, sleepiness and anxiety of Paralympic Brazilian athletes: Beijing 2008 Paralympic games. Br J Sports Med . 2012 ; 46 ( 2 ): 150 – 154

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Chris Brogden, Kelly Marrin, Richard Page and Matt Greig

the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool. 3 In addition to weekly matches, the participants were required to have completed typical training volumes equating to >8 hours per week during the preceding soccer season. All participants were moderate or intermediate Chronotypes, 22 who reported at least 6

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Laura E. Juliff, Jeremiah J. Peiffer and Shona L. Halson

– 853 . PubMed ID: 26794719 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.007 10.1016/j.jsams.2015.12.007 26794719 15. Lastella M , Roach G , Teng E , Mattey E , Halson S , Sargent C . Sleeping to a schedule: does chronotype play a part . In: Kennedy GA , Sargent C , eds. Little Clock, Big Clock

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

chronotype questionnaire including an amplitude dimension . Chronobiology International, 30 ( 5 ), 639 – 648 . PubMed ID: 23510464 doi:10.3109/07420528.2012.763042 10.3109/07420528.2012.763042 Fraschini , F. , Cesarani , A. , Alpini , D. , Esposti , D. , & Stankov , B.M. ( 1999 ). Melatonin