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Julia Freedman Silvernail, Richard E.A. van Emmerik, Katherine Boyer, Michael A. Busa and Joseph Hamill

of 360°. Although the interpretation of an angle of 1° and 359° are the same, numerically they lead to a discontinuity in the data that would lead to errors if assessed using linear statistics. Therefore, the data necessitate adherence to the principles of circular statistics for all calculations and

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Yumeng Li, Rumit S. Kakar, Marika A. Walker, Li Guan and Kathy J. Simpson

strictly harmonic or sinusoidal, thus violating conditions for certain circular statistics used to assess coordination mode or stability. 6 , 16 Essentially, to calculate the RFP, the fundamental frequency ( f 1 max ) that is closest to pure harmonic motion of either segment is determined; next, using the

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Eric Foch and Clare E. Milner

averaged at each percent of stance across participant’s 5 trials. The coupling angle is directional; therefore, the average coupling angle was calculated using circular statistics. 24 Coordination was reported as the percentage of each stance period (braking phase and propulsive phase) participants spent

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Alessia Longo and Ruud Meulenbroek

coordination stability between the two hands, the means ( M ϕ in degrees) and SD ϕ (in degrees) of the continuous relative phase signals ( ϕ ) of the fingers were calculated using Batschelet’s ( 1981 ) procedure involving circular statistics (see Meulenbroek, Thomassen, van Lieshout, & Swinnen, 1998 ). ϕ

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Hai-Jung Steffi Shih, Danielle N. Jarvis, Pamela Mikkelsen and Kornelia Kulig

calculated based on the horizontal ( x ¯ 1 ) and vertical ( y ¯ 1 ) components at each instant using circular statistics based on Equations ( 5 ), ( 6 ), and ( 7 ): x ¯ l = 1 n ∑ i = 1 n cos   γ i (5) y ¯ l = 1 n ∑ i = 1 n sin   γ i (6) γ ¯ l = Atan ( y ¯ l x ¯ l ) · 180 π (7) Coupling angle variability at

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Wataru Kawakami, Makoto Takahashi, Yoshitaka Iwamoto and Koichi Shinakoda

between 0° and 360°. The mean coupling angles were calculated using circular statistics. 35 First, the mean horizontal ( x i ¯ ) and vertical ( y i ¯ ) components at each point of 5 trials were calculated (Equations  2 and 3 ), and mean coupling angles ( γ i ¯ ) within a subject were determined using