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Fleur E.C.A. van Rens and Edson Filho

Contemporary circus is a performance art form in which human performers use circus skills to tell a story ( Leroux, 2014 ). In terms of physical skills and demands, there are similarities between contemporary circus disciplines and sports such as gymnastics. Recognizing these similarities, various

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Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley and Patrice Aubertin

development of PL and, therefore, potentially increasing PA, is circus arts. Circus arts instruction (CAI) involves the development of movement skills across five families of circus disciplines (acrobatics, manipulation, equilibrium, aerials, and clowning) for the artistic expression of individual and

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John Sugden and Alan Tomlinson

This article reviews the impact of the 1994 World Cup (Soccer) Finals upon contemporary US sports culture. The authors draw upon historical and sociological scholarship on North American sports culture, participant observation data generated by them during the World Cup itself, and empirical sources on the context and impact of the World Cup’s development and implementation. These sources are used within an analytical framework derived from critical and investigative sociological traditions. The article situates the case study within debates concerning the USA’s sports space and the nature of globalizing processes within contemporary sport. It is concluded that though the World Cup was notably successful as spectacle and event (as predicted by a number of commentators), and as the accomplishment of interlocking networks of sports administrative elites, its impact upon established US sports culture and space has been minimal.

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John Fry and Daniel Bloyce

This article examines the effects of globalization on the well-being of migrant professional athletes. Interviews with 20 touring professional golfers reveal that players experience many of the personal problems—such as loneliness, isolation, low decision latitude, low social support, and effort-reward imbalance—which have been identified as “strong predictors of mental ill-health” (Leka & Jain, 2010, p. 65). Feelings of loneliness and isolation developed as players were regularly apart from family and friends, and spent most of their time with other golfers whom they had somewhat superficial relationships with. These feelings coupled with, for many, uncertain income generated through golf added further to their work-related anxieties. Overall, results highlight the importance of considering how workplace anxieties and vulnerabilities impact on athlete migrants’ health and well-being.

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Niamh M. Murphy and Adrian Bauman


Large-scale, one-off sporting or physical activity (PA) events are often thought to impact population PA levels. This article reviews the evidence and explores the nature of the effect.


A search of the published and grey literature was conducted to July 2005 using relevant databases, web sources, and personal contacts. Impacts are described at the individual, societal and community, and environmental levels.


Few quality evaluations have been conducted. While mass sporting events appear to influence PA-related infrastructure, there is scant evidence of impact on individual participation at the population level. There is some evidence that events promoting active transport can positively affect PA.


The public health potential of major sporting and PA events is often cited, but evidence for public health benefit is lacking. An evaluation framework is proposed.

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M. Ann Hall

’s professional sports in nineteenth-century North America—what sport historian Roberta Park called “contesting the norm.” 6 Mostly, these athletes were circus performers, pedestriennes (race walkers), wrestlers, boxers, shooters, natationists (swimmers), baseball players, high-wheel and safety bicycle racers

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Dean Dudley, John Cairney and Jackie Goodway

the circus arts as intervention medium ( Kriellaars et al., 2019 ) to explore the development of physical literacy in schools. Our first article by John Cairney and colleagues is a comprehensive review into the origins of the physical literacy construct. The authors find writings referencing the

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Brian E. Pruegger

only highlights the architectural and historical prestige of Montreal but also endeavors to illuminate its global identity as the true “Hockeytown.” In Chapter 7, Alain Deneault incorporates “Bread and Circuses,” a term derived from satirist Roman writer Juvenal and takes an opposite stance to the

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Sheila Hanlon

historical inquiry that corrects many misconceptions about early women’s cycling history. Armaindo was born Marie Louise Brisebois in 1857 to a working-class Quebecois family. After joining the circus at the age of 14, she adopted Armaindo as her stage name and developed a backstory to match, claiming to