Measurement has a high profile in sport and exercise psychology research and provides the basis for examining and developing theory. The current state of sport and exercise psychology is one of complex models and theories, and sophisticated measurement methods are required to fully understand and develop these. This paper promotes a current and powerful measurement approach, item response theory, and demonstrates how it can be applied to sport and exercise psychological constructs to enhance the quality of instrument development and strengthen construct validity.
Miranda P. Kaye and Sharleen Hoar
The development of a self-report instrument to measure antisocial sport behavior, labeled the Antisocial Sport Behavior Survey (ASBS), among large and diverse samples of athletes is reported. Grounded in the social cognitive theory of moral thought and action (Bandura, 1991) and interpersonal theory (Horowitz, 2004), this instrument was developed and tested in accordance with the traditions of construct validity and classical test theory (Gehlback & Brinkworth, 2011). In Phase 1, 272 college-aged competitive sport participants confirmed a theoretical structure of antisocial sport behavior including eight factors (hypercompetitive, intimidating, antagonistic, disrespectful, exploitable, overly accommodating, abetting, and melodramatic). Phase 2 reports on item development and the response structure of the instrument. In Phase 3, evidence of structural validity and external validity for the ASBS was established with 340 college-aged competitive sport participants. The ASBS presents as a promising new instrument to advance understanding of antisocial sport behavior acts committed by competitive athletes.
Emily Cole, Terry M. Wood and John M. Dunn
Tests constructed using item response theory (IRT) produce invariant item and test parameters, making it possible to construct tests and test items useful over many populations. This paper heuristically and empirically compares the utility of classical test theory (CTT) and IRT using psychomotor skill data. Data from the Test of Gross Motor Development (TGMD) (Ulrich, 1985) were used to assess the feasibility of fitting existing IRT models to dichotomously scored psychomotor skill data. As expected, CTT and IRT analyses yielded parallel interpretations of item and subtest difficulty and discrimination. However, IRT provided significant additional analysis of the error associated with estimating examinee ability. The IRT two-parameter logistic model provided a superior model fit to the one-parameter logistic model. Although both TGMD subtests estimated ability for examinees of low to average ability, the object control subtest estimated examinee ability more precisely at higher difficulty levels than the locomotor subtest. The results suggest that IRT is particularly well suited to construct tests that can meet the challenging measurement demands of adapted physical education.
Gina L. Trakman, Adrienne Forsyth, Kane Middleton, Russell Hoye, Sarah Jenner, Stephen Keenan and Regina Belski
validated in an Australian cohort that included AF players. The validation was robust and included both classical test theory and Rasch analysis ( Trakman et al., 2017a ). The purpose of this paper was to (a) report on the NK of male Australian AF players using the NSKQ and (b) compare levels of NK between
Dennis Dreiskaemper, Till Utesch and Maike Tietjens
within larger sample sizes as well as in other languages and cultures. Besides, the instruments measuring PA (in a subjective rating manner) and sport enjoyment have not been validated, yet. However, a strength of this study is the combination of methods of classical test theory and item response theory
Lauren M. Robins, Ted Brown, Aislinn F. Lalor, Rene Stolwyk, Fiona McDermott and Terry Haines
-month follow-up. This factor was labeled the ‘Physical Capacity Score’. Summative scores were then constructed following the principles of classical test theory ( Tractenberg, 2010 ), for baseline, three- and six-month outcomes. The minimum possible Physical Capacity Score was four and the maximum possible
Meredith Rocchi and Luc G. Pelletier
of Educational Psychology, 94 , 186 – 196 . doi:10.1037/0022-06126.96.36.199 Probst , T. ( 2003 ). Development and validation of the job security index and the job security satisfaction scale: A classical test theory and IRT approach . Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 76