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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns, and Fergal Jones

severity of impairment that athletes may present with. However, to develop a more stratified approach, similar to other impairment groups, research must be undertaken, upon which a more sensitive classification system could be based. It is the purpose of this paper to explore how such a system could be

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Yetsa A. Tuakli-Wosornu, Xiang Li, Kimberly E. Ona Ayala, Yinfei Wu, Michael Amick, and David B. Frumberg

The World Para Athletics (track and field) classification system serves two primary purposes: to determine who is eligible to compete in Para athletics competitions and to separate athletes into evidence-based sport classes to ensure equitable competition ( Tweedy et al., 2016 ; Tweedy

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David S. Haydon, Ross A. Pinder, Paul N. Grimshaw, and William S.P. Robertson

classifications, 1 as well as performance outcomes. 2 Despite an increase in popularity and research in wheelchair rugby (WCR), there is currently a limited understanding of how the level of activity limitation affects key kinematic variables and their impact on chair acceleration and sprint performance

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Rienk M.A. van der Slikke, Annemarie M.H. de Witte, Monique A.M. Berger, Daan J.J. Bregman, and Dirk Jan H.E.J. Veeger

high seating position for shooting and its assumed negative effect on WMP. The conditions for this trade-off are highly individual, specified by the athlete’s classification, skills, and field position. A prerequisite to quantify the relationship between performance and wheelchair settings is to have

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Tiago M. Barbosa, Jorge E. Morais, Mário J. Costa, José Goncalves, Daniel A. Marinho, and António J. Silva

The aim of this article has been to classify swimmers based on kinematics, hydrodynamics, and anthropometrics. Sixty-seven young swimmers made a maximal 25 m front-crawl to measure with a speedometer the swimming velocity (v), speed-fluctuation (dv) and dv normalized to v (dv/v). Another two 25 m bouts with and without carrying a perturbation device were made to estimate active drag coefficient (CD a). Trunk transverse surface area (S) was measured with photogrammetric technique on land and in the hydrodynamic position. Cluster 1 was related to swimmers with a high speed fluctuation (ie, dv and dv/v), cluster 2 with anthropometrics (ie, S) and cluster 3 with a high hydrodynamic profile (ie, CD a). The variable that seems to discriminate better the clusters was the dv/v (F = 53.680; P < .001), followed by the dv (F = 28.506; P < .001), CD a (F = 21.025; P < .001), S (F = 6.297; P < .01) and v (F = 5.375; P = .01). Stepwise discriminant analysis extracted 2 functions: Function 1 was mainly defined by dv/v and S (74.3% of variance), whereas function 2 was mainly defined by CD a (25.7% of variance). It can be concluded that kinematics, hydrodynamics and anthropometrics are determinant domains in which to classify and characterize young swimmers’ profiles.

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Rafael E.A. Muchaxo, Sonja de Groot, Lucas H.V. van der Woude, Thomas W.J. Janssen, and Carla Nooijen

comply with the International Paralympic Committee Code, stating that all Paralympic sports competitions must be based on an evidence-based classification system ( Tweedy & Vanlandewijck, 2011 ). According to Tweedy and Vanlandewijck ( 2011 ), parasport classification systems should aim to promote sport

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Darda Sales and Laura Misener

encouraged mainstream siblings to participate). An array of classifications were represented, from S3 to S11, with two athletes represented who had not yet been through a comprehensive classification process. Classification in swimming is based on the functional ability of the athlete, and for those with a

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James M. Rhodes, Barry S. Mason, Thomas A.W. Paulson, and Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey

has revealed that WCR is an intermittent sport with players typically covering distances of 2500 and 4600 m during competition 3 , 4 and the majority of time spent performing low-speed activities interspersed with frequent bouts of high-speed activities. 3 Classification has also been shown to

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Raúl Reina, Aitor Iturricastillo, Rafael Sabido, Maria Campayo-Piernas, and Javier Yanci

among IFCPF functional classes, demonstrating the usability of those tests for FPCP evaluation. Methods Participants A total of 132 international parafootballers (age = 25.8 [6.7] y; training experience = 10.7 [7.5] y) classified according to the IFCPF classification rules participated in this study

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Xiangyu Liu, Meiyu Zhou, Chenyun Dai, Wei Chen, and Xinming Ye

-Timemy, & Nguyen, 2016 ). In particular, hands provide indispensable functions in daily life. To this end, finger movement classification ( Dai & Hu, 2019a ; Farina et al., 2017 ; Prahm, Paassen, Schulz, Hammer, & Aszmann, 2017 ) plays a key role in prosthesis and exoskeleton control. So far, most sEMG