in 2018 approved the sport’s new sport-specific evidence-based classification system. The system was created in collaboration with international classifiers from the International Canoe Federation (ICF) and is based upon research undertaken by Rosén et al. ( 2019 ). In the Paralympic Para Va'a event
Johanna S. Rosén, Victoria L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Keith Tolfrey, Anton Arndt, and Anna Bjerkefors
Gale M. Gehlsen and Joan Karpuk
This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of the National Wheelchair Athletic Association (NWAA) classification system in swimming events. The NWAA records of freestyle, butterfly, and backstroke in nine classifications of both male and female athletes were used (N=1,256). Each athlete’s speed was calculated from the reported time and distance. There was a significant difference in classification for all events except the paraplegic 50- and 100-m backstroke events. Post hoc data analyses within classification for the 50- and 100-m freestyle events indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classifications. Post hoc data analyses within classifications for the 50-m butterfly event indicated significant differences among all paraplegic classes except Class V and Class VI athletes. Tetraplegic within classification post hoc data analyses indicated significant differences between 1A and both Classes 1B and 1C. Gender differences were statistically indicated for all events. The logic of the medical classification system of the NWAA cannot be totally supported by these data. However, the results do not offer clear direction for any combination of classes.
Iván Peña-González, Alba Roldan, Carlos Toledo, Tomás Urbán, and Raúl Reina
develop sports-specific classification systems through multidisciplinary scientific research and such research must be evidence-based and focus on the relationship between impairment and key performance determinants.” After that announcement, all the international para-sports federations had to adapt
Viola C. Altmann, Jacques Van Limbeek, Anne L. Hart, and Yves C. Vanlandewijck
A representative sample (N = 302) of the wheelchair rugby population responded to a survey about the classification system based on prioritized items by International Wheelchair Rugby Federation members. Respondents stated, "The classification system is accurate but needs adjustments" (56%), "Any athlete with tetraequivalent impairment should be allowed to compete" (72%), "Athletes with cerebral palsy and other coordination impairments should be classified with a system different than the current one" (75%), and "The maximal value for trunk should be increased from 1.0 to 1.5" (67%). A minority stated, "Wheelchair rugby should only be open to spinal cord injury and other neurological conditions" (36%) and "There should be a 4.0 class" (33%). Results strongly indicated that athletes and stakeholders want adjustments to the classification system in two areas: a focus on evaluation of athletes with impairments other than loss of muscle power caused by spinal cord injury and changes in classification of trunk impairment.
Sheng K. Wu and Trevor Williams
The aim was to analyze the relationship between performance and classes of swimmers and between types of physical impairments and medal winners. Participants were 374 swimmers at the 1996 Paralympic Games with six types of impairments: poliomyelitis, cerebral palsy, spinal cord injury, amputation, dysmelia, and les autres. Data included performance times, gender, classification, swimming stroke and distance, and type of impairment. ANOVA and Spearman rank correlation treatment of data revealed significant differences in swimmers’ mean speeds across classes and positive correlations in swimmers’ classes and swimming speeds in all male and female events; no type of impairment dominated the opportunity to participate, win medals, or advance to the finals. It was concluded that the current swimming classification system is effective with respect to generating fair competition for most swimmers.
Frank L. Gardner and Zella E. Moore
In response to the absence of a taxononomical system for the structured assessment, conceptualization, and intervention of athlete-clients, the MCS-SP is a model for the comprehensive evaluation of athlete-clients’ needs, strategies for in-depth case conceptualization, and systematic formulation of the most appropriate type and level of professional service required. This classification system is based on the primary issues, needs, and life circumstances of the athlete-client and the suggested assessment and intervention foci combine the environmental, interpersonal, intrapersonal, behavioral, and performance history/demands that impact athletic clientele. Categories within the taxonomy include Performance Development, Performance Dysfunction, Performance Impairment, and Performance Termination, each of which include two subtypes that further guide the appropriate, ethical, and effective provision of services.
Tim L.A. Doyle, Ronald W. Davis, Brendan Humphries, Eric L. Dugan, Bryon G. Horn, Jae Kun Shim, and Robert U. Newton
A number of researchers have long questioned systems used for classifying athletes with disabilities. Wheelchair basketball players have gained much attention from researchers. Despite this, no change to the NWBA classification system has been made since it was first adopted in 1984. This study investigated the NWBA classification system. At two summer basketball camps, 46 players were tested to assess player sprint performance and stratification under the NWBA medical classification system. The group consisted of Class 1, 2, and 3 players. Electronic timing gates were used to collect 20 meter sprint-times. Results indicate that Class 1 players were significantly slower compared to Class 2 and 3 players (p < .05) with no difference between Class 2 and 3. The results of this study support a change to this system.
Catrine Tudor-Locke, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Tracy L. Washington, and Richard Troiano
The Current Population Survey (CPS) and the American Time Use Survey (ATUS) use the 2002 census occupation system to classify workers into 509 separate occupations arranged into 22 major occupational categories.
We describe the methods and rationale for assigning detailed Metabolic Equivalent (MET) estimates to occupations and present population estimates (comparing outputs generated by analysis of previously published summary MET estimates to the detailed MET estimates) of intensities of occupational activity using the 2003 ATUS data comprised of 20,720 respondents, 5323 (2917 males and 2406 females) of whom reported working 6+ hours at their primary occupation on their assigned reporting day.
Analysis using the summary MET estimates resulted in 4% more workers in sedentary occupations, 6% more in light, 7% less in moderate, and 3% less in vigorous compared with using the detailed MET estimates. The detailed estimates are more sensitive to identifying individuals who do any occupational activity that is moderate or vigorous in intensity resulting in fewer workers in sedentary and light intensity occupations.
Since CPS/ATUS regularly captures occupation data it will be possible to track prevalence of the different intensity levels of occupations. Updates will be required with inevitable adjustments to future occupational classification systems.
Bartosz Molik, Natalia Morgulec-Adamowicz, Jolanta Marszałek, Andrzej Kosmol, Izabela Rutkowska, Alicja Jakubicka, Ewelina Kaliszewska, Robert Kozłowski, Monika Kurowska, Elwira Ploch, Pavel Mustafins, and Miguel-Ángel Gómez
The aims of the current study were (a) to analyze the differences in game performances of sitting volleyball athletes representing the different types of disabilities and (b) to assess whether the seated position vertical reach is one of the crucial factors in the game performance level of sitting volleyball athletes. One hundred male athletes from various national teams participating in the European Championships in Sitting Volleyball (2009) took part in this study. The athletes were categorized according to type of disability and the results of the vertical reach in a seated position. Thirtysix games were analyzed using the Game Performance Sheet for Sitting Volleyball. Twenty-three game performance parameters were studied. In addition, the sum and effectiveness of attacks, blocks, block services, services, ball receiving, and defensive actions were calculated. The main results indicated significant differences between athletes with minimal disability and athletes with single amputations from above the knee in the level of defensive performances and the summation of defensive actions. There was also a significant difference between athletes in relation to their vertical reach during activity and attacking actions, blocks, and ball receiving. In addition, there were strong relationships between the players’ vertical reach scores and their activity and effectiveness in sitting volleyball. In conclusion, the accuracy of the World Organization Volleyball for Disabled classification systems for sitting volleyball players was confirmed. There is a strong relationship between players’ vertical reach and their effectiveness in sitting volleyball.
Alannah K.A. McKay, Trent Stellingwerff, Ella S. Smith, David T. Martin, Iñigo Mujika, Vicky L. Goosey-Tolfrey, Jeremy Sheppard, and Louise M. Burke
terminology to avoid the misinterpretation of the commonly used subjective terms such as “well-trained” or “elite.” Within the cycling specific literature, these classification systems have been widely adopted and have likely facilitated better comparison and interpretation of scientific results. However