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Burhan Parsak and Leyla Saraç

Objective: The objectives of this study were to (a) identify Turkish middle-school physical education teachers’ self-reported use and perceptions of spectrum teaching styles, (b) determine the spectrum teaching styles the teachers use when teaching, and (c) examine whether gender and teaching experience were differentiating factors. Method: A convenience sample of 58 female and 62 male teachers working in 86 different middle schools located in Adana (Turkey) were recruited into the study. The data were collected using two validated instruments: the Physical Education Teachers’ Use of Teaching Styles and Perceptions of Styles Questionnaire, and the Instrument for Identifying Teaching Styles. Results: The findings based on the teachers’ reported perceptions (questionnaire data) revealed that the teachers employed the full spectrum of teaching styles in their classes, ranging from teacher centered to student centered, regardless of their gender or level of teaching experience. However, the data based on actual observations of teaching styles yielded less evidence that the self-reported styles were used in actual teaching settings. The teachers’ perceptions and their actual use of teaching styles did not vary according to the gender and/or teaching experience of the teacher. Conclusion: There is a discrepancy between teachers’ self-reported teaching styles and the actual use of the styles in their teaching.

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Stephanie Mazzucca, Derek Hales, Kelly R. Evenson, Alice Ammerman, Deborah F. Tate, Diane C. Berry and Dianne S. Ward

centers participated in a 4-day assessment of the physical activity environment of classrooms for 3- to 5-year-olds and the physical activity behaviors of children in those classrooms. Observation days captured the entire day for most children in the class—beginning with the first meal or when the child

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Nicholas E. Fears and Jeffrey J. Lockman

, Harris, Fink-Chorzempa, & MacArthur, 2003 ). First grade teachers have been shown to spend 9.6% of the time (26.4 minutes of 275 minutes) on writing instruction during classroom observation periods, but this varied widely by teachers, ranging from 5.5 to 74.25 minutes ( Coker et al., 2016 ). Similarly

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Dean J. Kriellaars, John Cairney, Marco A.C. Bortoleto, Tia K.M. Kiez, Dean Dudley and Patrice Aubertin

assessment of teaching quality in the study. Similarly, we did not assess teacher efficacy by auditing lesson plans or by classroom observation. Some of the positive results in CAI-PE might be explained by increased motivation and drive to succeed, and drive to succeed, as well as a likely association with