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Tan Leng Goh and Kristin Scrabis-Fletcher

, E.A. , . . . Sallis , J.F. ( 2015 ). Implementing classroom physical activity breaks: Associations with student physical activity and classroom behavior . Preventive Medicine, 81, 67 – 72 . PubMed ID: 26297105 doi: 10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.08.006 Carson , R.L. , Castelli , D.M. , Beighle

Open access

Jeffery J. Honas, Erik A. Willis, Stephen D. Herrmann, Jerry L. Greene, Richard A. Washburn and Joseph E. Donnelly

Background:

There is limited data regarding objectively measured energy cost and intensity of classroom instruction. Therefore, the purpose of current study was to objectively measure energy cost and subsequently calculate MET values using a portable indirect calorimeter (IC) for both normal classroom instruction (NCI) and active classroom instruction (ACI).

Methods:

We assessed energy expenditure (EE) and intensity levels (METs) in elementary school children (17 boys and 15 girls) using an IC (COSMED K4b2). Independent t-tests were used to evaluate potential sex and grade level differences for age, BMI, VO2, EE, and METs.

Results:

The average EE for NCI and ACI were 1.8 ± 0.4 and 3.9 ± 1.0, respectively. The average intensity level for NCI and ACI were 1.9 ± 0.4 and 4.2 ± 0.9 METs, respectively.

Conclusions:

PA delivered through ACI can elicit EE at a moderate intensity level. These results provide evidence for ACI as a convenient/feasible avenue for increasing PA in youth without decreasing instruction time.

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Patrick Abi Nader, Evan Hilberg, John M. Schuna, Deborah H. John and Katherine B. Gunter

Background: Classroom-based physical activity (CBPA) breaks are a cost-effective strategy to promote physical activity (PA) at school. Despite teachers’ critical roles in sustained implementation of CBPA breaks, few studies examined the association of teacher-level factors with student PA levels, and none focused on rural schools. Methods: We monitored children’s PA levels over 4 consecutive school days at 6 rural Oregon elementary schools with Walk4Life pedometers. During the same week, teachers recorded all student PA opportunities (recess, PE, and CBPA breaks) and answered a 26-item questionnaire about factors influencing their use of CBPA breaks. Mixed-effects models were used to associate teacher-level factors and PA opportunities with children’s moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA; in minutes per day), controlling for child-level covariates. Results: When teachers valued PA, students accumulated more MVPA (1.07 min/d; P < .01) than students of teachers reporting low PA value. Students did more MVPA (1 min/d; P < .001) when teachers agreed the school operating conditions posed barriers to providing PA than when teachers disagreed that barriers existed. PE classes contributed significantly to student’s PA levels. Conclusion: Provision of PE, increasing teacher value for PA, and further investigation of how teacher-level factors relate to students’ MVPA levels during CBPA breaks at rural elementary schools are warranted.

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Dana Sirota, Dodi Meyer, Andres Nieto, Arlen Zamula, Melissa Stockwell and Evelyn Berger-Jenkins

Background:

School-based physical activity programs can reach large populations of at-risk children however evidence for the sustainability of healthy behaviors as a result of these programs is mixed. Healthy Schools Healthy Families (HSHF) is a physical activity and nutrition program for elementary students in a predominantly minority community. The program includes short teacher led classroom-based physical activities, also known as Transition Exercises (TE). Our aim was to assess whether TE was associated with children’s reported recreational physical activity outside of school.

Methods:

We surveyed HSHF students in grade 5 (n = 383) about their recreational physical activity at the start and end of the school year. Multivariable analysis was used to determine what factors including TE contributed to their reported activity.

Results:

Students were predominantly Hispanic with a mean age of 10 ± .03. There was an increase in reported recreational physical activity from the start to the end of the school year (73.6% to 82.4%, P < .05). Students who participated in more TE had a 2.75 times greater odds of reporting participation in recreational activity than students who participated in less TE.

Conclusions:

For students in HSHF, TE was significantly associated with an increase in recreational physical activity.

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Tine Torbeyns, Bas de Geus, Stephen Bailey, Lieselot Decroix, Jeroen Van Cutsem, Kevin De Pauw and Romain Meeusen

Background:

Physical activity is positively associated with physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance. The aim of this study is to investigate the influence of bike desks in the classroom on adolescents’ energy expenditure, physical health, cognitive performance, brain functioning and academic performance.

Methods:

Forty-four adolescents were randomly assigned to control group (CG) or intervention group (IG). During 5 months, the IG used a bike desk for 4 class hours/week. Energy expenditure was measured during 6 consecutive days. Anthropometric parameters, aerobic fitness, academic performance, cognitive performance and brain functioning were assessed before (T0) and after (T1) the intervention.

Results:

Energy expenditure of the IG was significantly higher during the class hours in which they used the bike desks relative to normal class hours. The CG had a significantly higher BMI at T1 relative to T0 while this was not significantly different for the IG. Aerobic fitness was significantly better in the IG at T1 relative to T0. No significant effects on academic performance cognitive performance and brain functioning were observed.

Conclusions:

As the implementation of bike desks in the classroom did not interfere with adolescents’ academic performance, this can be seen as an effective means of reducing in-class sedentary time and improving adolescents’ physical health.

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Ang Chen

School is an environment where children and adolescents spend most of their time during the day. The environment is characterized by a sedentary culture necessary for academic learning. In this article, I present research evidence showing the effects of four physical activity opportunities in this environment: school athletics, recess, classroom physical activity breaks, and physical education. Based on an analysis of research evidence on the four opportunities, I propose that the efforts to promote the opportunities should be coordinated into a concerted action to integrate a physical activity-friendly culture in the sedentary environment. Using an example of China's whole-school physical activity promotion strategy, I identify four areas for us to continue to work on: legislature-based policies, physical education as core content, creation and maintenance of physical activity traditions in schools, and integration of physical activity-friendly culture into the sedentary school environment.

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Sheri J. Brock, Danielle Wadsworth, Nikki Hollett and Mary E. Rudisill

The School of Kinesiology at Auburn University is using Movband Technology to support online learning in their physical activity program. Active Auburn is a 2-hr credit course that encourages students (n = 2,000/year) to become physically active through online instruction and tracking physical activity using Movband technology. Movband technology allows for uploading and monitoring group physical activity data. The implementation of this technology has allowed the School of Kinesiology to: (a) promote physical activity on our campus, (b) serve a large number of students, (c) reduce demand on classroom/physical activity space, and (d) promote our research and outreach scholarship as well, by collecting physical activity profiles for students enrolled in the course. Students report they enjoy the course and that they appreciate the “freedom to exercise” when it best fits into their schedule. This course generates considerable revenue to support course instruction and much more for the School of Kinesiology.

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Tan Leng Goh, James Hannon, Collin Webster, Leslie Podlog and Maria Newton

Background:

Prolonged sitting at desks during the school day without a break may result in off-task behavior in students. This study was designed to examine the effects of a classroom physical activity intervention, using TAKE 10!, on elementary school students’ on-task behavior. Nine classes (3rd to 5th grades) from 1 elementary school participated in the program (4-week baseline and 8-week intervention).

Methods:

The students’ on-task behavior was measured using systematic direct observation. Observations occurred once a week during weeks 1 to 4 (baseline) and weeks 8 to 12 (intervention). A two-way repeated-measures analysis of variance was used to compare on-task behavior between observation periods.

Results:

There was a significant decrease (P = .001) in mean percentage on-task behavior from preno TAKE 10! (91.2 ± 3.4) to postno TAKE 10! (83.5 ± 4.0) during the baseline period, whereas there was a significant increase (P = .001) in mean percentage on-task behavior from pre-TAKE 10! (82.3 ± 4.5) to post-TAKE 10! (89.5 ± 2.7) during the intervention period.

Conclusions:

Furthermore, students who received more daily TAKE 10! were found to be more on-task than students who received less TAKE 10!. The TAKE 10! program is effective in improving students’ on-task behavior in the classroom.

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offer rich physical activity opportunities. One initiative includes incorporating physical activity in the classroom by including it within the class content, as a transition between subjects or as a pause in instruction. This study explored perceptions of classroom physical activity of teachers and

Open access

Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Kara D. Denstel, Kim Beals, Jordan Carlson, Scott E. Crouter, Thomas L. McKenzie, Russell R. Pate, Susan B. Sisson, Amanda E. Staiano, Heidi Stanish, Dianne S. Ward, Melicia Whitt-Glover and Carly Wright

districts recommend elementary schools provide recess (2016 SHPPS). 2 Approximately 11%, 8%, and 2% of school districts require that elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, provide regular classroom physical activity breaks during the school day (2016 SHPPS). 2 Active Transportation D