The purpose of this study was to explore classroom teachers’ perceptions of incorporating physical activity breaks into their classroom and to determine specific features of preferred activity breaks. These perceptions are considered within the conceptual framework of Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP). Twelve elementary and high school classroom teachers from one Indigenous school district participated in the study. The data were collected using semistructured interviews and teachers’ reflective journals and were analyzed inductively by conducting systematic searches for patterns across data types. Emergent themes included: the need for and threats to classroom control; a preference for breaks with connections to academic content; and the importance of implementation ease and student enjoyment. The findings indicated that teachers prefer activity breaks that are easy to manage, quick, academically oriented and enjoyable for students. These findings have practical implications when considering physical education teacher education and professional development that targets classroom teachers.
Jaimie McMullen, Pamela Kulinna and Donetta Cothran
Michelle E. Jordan, Kent Lorenz, Michalis Stylianou and Pamela Hodges Kulinna
insight into the social-interactional factors associated with these outcomes. Thus, the purpose of the current study was, first, to explore classroom teachers’ patterns of social interaction related to intervention activities (i.e., social capital) and, second, to investigate relationships between social
Pamela C. Allison
Elementary school classroom teachers continue to have primary responsibility for teaching elementary physical education. As a group, they have received little attention concerning their development of pedagogical skills in physical education. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to describe what preservice classroom teachers observe and what perceptual processes they employ while observing physical education field lessons. The participants were seven junior elementary education majors who observed two physical education classes. Data were collected using the techniques of thinking aloud and stimulated recall interview. The constant comparative method of data analysis revealed the following three themes as characteristic of this group of preservice classroom teachers: students’ movement responses dominated their observational attention, the classroom teachers evaluated what they saw, and they observed using the perceptual process of contrast.
Kelsey McEntyre, Matthew D. Curtner-Smith and Deborah S. Baxter
There is a good deal of evidence suggesting that both preservice classroom teachers (PCTs) and in-service classroom teachers are ill prepared to teach physical education and reluctant to do so ( Curtner-Smith, 2007 ; Morgan & Bourke, 2008 ; Morgan & Hansen, 2008 ; Xiang, Lowy, & McBride, 2002
The aim of this study was to explore preservice classroom teacher reflection in a physical education teaching and learning environment and to describe how the teachers’ reflections related to their practices. Two preservice classroom teachers voluntarily participated in the study. Data were collected using observations, journals, documents, and interviews and were analyzed inductively (Patton, 1990). Four major themes emerged from the data: (a) the role of reflection, (b) reflection in action and reflection on action, (c) agency for changes in teaching, and (d) nature and focus of reflection. Findings suggested that the two participants considered reflection a necessity in teaching. Student progress and learning was the most powerful agency for changes to the participants’ practices. Results also indicated that the participants’ reflections related to pedagogical, content, and social issues of teaching, as well as pedagogical content knowledge, and that the nature of their reflection was mostly positive across the lessons.
Jan-Erik Romar and Magnus Ferry
Given the complexity of teachers’ work, the available research on classroom teachers who teach physical education (PE) has presented an interesting landscape. In most European countries, PE is predominantly taught by classroom teachers at the elementary grades (K-6; Hardman, 2005 ; Tsangaridou
Christine M. King and John M. Dunn
The purpose of this study was to examine the accuracy of classroom teachers in observing students’ motor performance. In order to assess teacher accuracy in rating motor performance, an analysis was conducted on students’ scores on the Short Form of the Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency (BOT-S) between those who were rated high as compared to those who were rated low in motor performance, as determined by a teacher observation form. The two-tailed t statistic indicated a significant difference between standard mean scores for upper and lower quartile performances on the BOT-S (P<.05). However, there was a high degree of variance within the high and low groups. The results suggest that classroom teachers are more accurate in observing high motor performance than in observing low motor performance.
Ping Xiang, Susan Lowy and Ron McBride
The present study focused on preservice classroom teachers’ beliefs about elementary physical education and the impact of a field-based elementary physical education methods course on their beliefs. Participants (N = 97) completed questionnaires at the beginning and at the end of the course. Results indicated that the preservice classroom teachers held similar beliefs about the values and purposes of elementary physical education as were shared by physical education professionals. The methods course had a positive impact on the participants’ beliefs but no impact on their disposition toward teaching elementary physical education. Teaching physical education in an elementary school setting and observing physical education classes were the two most important components of the course that contributed to changes in the participants’ beliefs.
Collin Webster, Eva Monsma and Heather Erwin
Recommendations for increasing children’s daily physical activity (PA) call on classroom teachers to assume an activist role at school. This study examined relationships among preservice classroom teachers’ (PCT; n = 247) biographical characteristics, perceptions and attitudes regarding school PA promotion (SPAP). Results indicated participants who completed SPAP-related college coursework and had PA-related teaching/coaching experiences reported higher SPAP competence. Significant relationships were found among BMI, personal PA competence and SPAP competence in the contexts of PE and extracurricular settings. Personal PA competence and SPAP competence at recess and in the classroom predicted 19% of the variance in SPAP attitudes. Experiences in PA settings and preservice training may have important implications for the overall success of efforts to enhance school PA promotion.
Nell Faucette, Peg Nugent, James F. Sallis and Thomas L. McKenzie
Classroom teachers’ responses to a 2-year professional development program are presented. Sixteen 4th- and 5th-grade teachers involved in Project SPARK completed structured interviews, questionnaires, and written evaluations of program sessions. Although in Year 1 more than half of the teachers expressed concerns about schedules and equipment management, results indicated that the program helped increase their self-confidence when teaching physical education. Participants believed that students benefitted from their enhanced knowledge and instructional behaviors. Program components most appreciated included: the input received and responsiveness of the design team; opportunities to collaborate, discuss concerns, and problem-solve with each other and the facilitators; and having on-site and large-group-session modeling. Results indicated that the teachers were less enthusiastic about a self-management curriculum due to its behavioral emphasis, yet supported the assertion that an ongoing, supportive professional development program can substantially improve classroom teachers’ physical education programs.