Context: Technological advances have given smartphones the capabilities of sensitive clinical measurement equipment at lesser cost and higher availability. The Clinometer is a smartphone application that can be used to measure the joint range of motion in a clinical setting, but psychometric properties of the tool’s use measuring cervical range of motion (CROM) are not established. Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the validity and intrarater reliability of the Clinometer application for the measurement of CROM (ie, flexion, extension, rotation, lateral flexion) and to determine the minimal detectable change and SEM. Design: A blinded, repeated-measures correlational design was employed. Setting: The study was conducted collaboratively between 2 athletic training clinics. Participants: A convenience sample of healthy adults ages 18–30 years were recruited. Participants with any history in the last 3 months of cervical or thoracic pathology, pain, or any musculoskeletal injury were excluded. Main Outcome Measures: Three repetitions of each motion were measured by a primary researcher with a goniometer. The same researcher then conducted 3 blinded measurements with the Clinometer application following the same procedure. A second researcher, blinded to the goniometer measurements, recorded the results. Thirty minutes later, testing was repeated with the application. The Pearson correlation was calculated to determine validity of the application compared with goniometry. Results: The measurements between devices had moderate to excellent concurrent validity, with the coefficients ranging between 0.544 and 0.888, P < .01. Test–retest reliability of the CROM measurement using the application was moderate to excellent, with intraclass correlation coefficients ranging between .774 and .928. Across all movements, the SEM ranged from 1.17° to 2.01°, and the minimal detectable change ranged from 1.18° to 2.02°. Conclusion: The Clinometer application is a valid and reliable instrument for measuring active CROM. Level of evidence: clinical measurement, level 1b.
Christanie Monreal, Lindsay Luinstra, Lindsay Larkins and James May
Mohammadreza Pourahmadi, Hamid Hesarikia, Ali Ghanjal and Alireza Shamsoddini
care providers the capability to assess medical references, clinical measurement apps, 3 , 4 research tools and patient information, 5 medical consultation, 6 documentation, 7 and patient education. 8 The smartphones and other mobile devices are equipped with a mass of technology including cameras
Franco M. Impellizzeri and Samuele M. Marcora
We propose that physiological and performance tests used in sport science research and professional practice should be developed following a rigorous validation process, as is done in other scientific fields, such as clinimetrics, an area of research that focuses on the quality of clinical measurement and uses methods derived from psychometrics. In this commentary, we briefly review some of the attributes that must be explored when validating a test: the conceptual model, validity, reliability, and responsiveness. Examples from the sport science literature are provided.
Derek N. Pamukoff, Sarah E. Bell, Eric D. Ryan and J. Troy Blackburn
Hamstring musculotendinous stiffness (MTS) is associated with lower-extremity injury risk (ie, hamstring strain, anterior cruciate ligament injury) and is commonly assessed using the damped oscillatory technique. However, despite a preponderance of studies that measure MTS reliably in laboratory settings, there are no valid clinical measurement tools. A valid clinical measurement technique is needed to assess MTS and permit identification of individuals at heightened risk of injury and track rehabilitation progress.
To determine the validity and reliability of the Myotonometer for measuring active hamstring MTS.
Descriptive laboratory study.
33 healthy participants (15 men, age 21.33 ± 2.94 y, height 172.03 ± 16.36 cm, mass 74.21 ± 16.36 kg).
Main Outcome Measures:
Hamstring MTS was assessed using the damped oscillatory technique and the Myotonometer. Intraclass correlations were used to determine the intrasession, intersession, and interrater reliability of the Myotonometer. Criterion validity was assessed via Pearson product–moment correlation between MTS measures obtained from the Myotonometer and from the damped oscillatory technique.
The Myotonometer demonstrated good intrasession (ICC3,1 = .807) and interrater reliability (ICC2,k = .830) and moderate intersession reliability (ICC2,k = .693). However, it did not provide a valid measurement of MTS compared with the damped oscillatory technique (r = .346, P = .061).
The Myotonometer does not provide a valid measure of active hamstring MTS. Although the Myotonometer does not measure active MTS, it possesses good reliability and portability and could be used clinically to measure tissue compliance, muscle tone, or spasticity associated with multiple musculoskeletal disorders. Future research should focus on portable and clinically applicable tools to measure active hamstring MTS in efforts to prevent and monitor injuries.
Eric G. Post, Matthew Olson, Stephanie Trigsted, Scott Hetzel and David R. Bell
Context: The overhead squat test (OHS) is a functional screening exam that is used to identify high-risk movement profiles such as medial knee displacement (MKD). The reliability and discriminative ability of observational screening during the OHS to identify MKD have yet to be established. Objectives: To investigate the reliability and discriminative ability of observational screening for MKD during the OHS. Study Design: Clinical measurement, cross-sectional. Participants: 100 college students were video-recorded performing the OHS. Three certified athletic trainers classified the knee posture of each subject during the OHS on 2 different occasions using screening guidelines. Main Outcome Measures: Ratings were evaluated by calculating kappa coefficients for intra- and interrater levels of agreements. MKD was measured using motion analysis. Results: Intrarater reliability ranged from .60-.76 with an average value of .70. Interrater reliability was substantial (kappa > .60) for both observation sessions (Fleiss kappa session 1 = .69, session 2 = .70). Sensitivity ranged was .58-.83, while specificity ranged was .70-.88. The MKD group displayed significantly more displacement than the no-MKD group (P < .001). There was a moderate positive correlation (r = .48, P < .001) between knee-posture group and MKD assessed using motion analysis. Conclusion: The OHS has substantial reliability and is able to assess the presence of MKD. The OHS should be used as part of a comprehensive examination that evaluates multiple movement patterns and risk levels.
Jonathan M. Williams, Michael Gara and Carol Clark
Context: Balance is important for injury prediction, prevention, and rehabilitation. Clinical measurement of higher level balance function such as hop landing is necessary. Currently, no method exists to quantify balance performance following hopping in the clinic. Objective: To quantify the sacral acceleration profile and test–retest reliability during hop landing. Participants: A total of 17 university undergraduates (age 27.6 [5.7] y, height 1.73 [0.11] m, weight 74.1 [13.9] kg). Main Outcome Measure: A trunk-mounted accelerometer captured the acceleration profile following landing from hopping forward, medially, and laterally. The path length of the acceleration traces were computed to quantify balance following landing. Results: Moderate to excellent reliability (intraclass correlation coefficient .67–.93) for hop landing was established with low to moderate SEM (4%–16%) and minimal detectable change values (13%–44%) for each of the hop directions. Significant differences were determined in balance following hop landing from the different directions. Conclusion: The results suggest that hop landing balance can be quantified by trunk-mounted accelerometry.
Maria Grazia Benedetti, Lisa Berti, Antonio Frizziero, Donata Ferrarese and Sandro Giannini
Surface replacement of the hip is aimed especially at active patients, and it seems to achieve optimal functional results in a short time if associated with a tailored rehabilitation protocol.
To assess the functional outcome in a group of active patients after hip resurfacing.
Clinical measurement and controlled laboratory study in a case series.
8 patients and a control group of 10 subjects.
Patients treated with Birmingham hip-resurfacing system and a tailored rehabilitation protocol
Main Outcome Measures:
Clinical assessment (Harris Hip Score [HHS]) and instrumented gait analysis including muscular electromyographic assessment. Patients were assessed preoperatively and at 3 and 9 mo follow-up after surgery.
HHS showed a significant increase from the baseline to 3- (P = .008) and 9-month (P = .014) follow-up; 5 patients returned to sport. Gait pattern in the presented case series of patients improved substantially 3 mo postoperatively, and minimal further changes were present 9 months postoperatively. Residual abnormalities of time-distance and hip-kinematics parameters were consistent with a slow gait. A complete restoration of the muscle-activation pattern during gait was achieved.
Hip resurfacing associated with a rehabilitation protocol based on the characteristics of the implant provides excellent clinical and functional outcome, especially for very active patients.
Yi-Fen Shih, Ya-Fang Lee and Wen-Yin Chen
Context: Scapular proprioception is a key concern in managing shoulder impingement syndrome (SIS). However, no study has examined the effect of elastic taping on scapular proprioception performance. Objective: To investigate the immediate effect of kinesiology taping (KT) on scapular reposition accuracy, kinematics, and muscle activation in individuals with SIS. Design: Randomized controlled study. Setting: Musculoskeletal laboratory, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan. Participants: Thirty overhead athletes with SIS. Interventions: KT or placebo taping over the upper and lower trapezius muscles. Main Outcome Measures: The primary outcome measures were scapular joint position sense, measured as the reposition errors, in the direction of scapular elevation and protraction. The secondary outcomes were scapular kinematics and muscle activity of the upper trapezius, lower trapezius, and serratus anterior during arm elevation in the scapular plane (scaption). Results: Compared with placebo taping, KT significantly decreased the reposition errors of upward/downward rotation (P = .04) and anterior/posterior tilt (P = .04) during scapular protraction. KT also improved scapular kinematics (significant group by taping effect for posterior tilt, P = .03) during scaption. Kinesiology and placebo tapings had a similar effect on upper trapezius muscle activation (significant taping effect, P = .003) during scaption. Conclusions: Our study identified the positive effects of KT on scapular joint position sense and movement control. Future studies with a longer period of follow-up and clinical measurement might help to clarify the clinical effect and mechanisms of elastic taping in individuals with SIS.
Sophie Speariett and Ross Armstrong
Context: Golf requires effective movement patterns to produce an effective swing and performance. Objective: To determine the relationship between the Titleist Performance Institute golf-specific functional movement screening (GSFMS) composite and individual element scores and golf performance by assessing a player’s handicap, clubhead speed, side accuracy, ball speed, peak pelvis rotation speed, swing sequence, and common swing faults. Design: Cohort study, clinical measurement. Setting: English golf club. Participants: A total of 11 amateur golfers: 5 males (age: 37.2 [18.7] y, height: 184.4 [9.6] cm, body mass: 89.5 [13.4] kg, and handicap: 9 [6.6]) and 6 females (age: 53.7 [15.0] y, height: 166.8 [5.5] cm, body mass: 67.9 [16.6] kg, and handicap: 13 [6.1]). Main Outcome Measures: GSFMS composite and individual element scores and golf performance variables. Results: Significant relationships existed between GSFMS composite scores and handicap (r = −.779, P = .01); clubhead speed (r = .701, P = .02); ball speed (r = .674, P = .02); and peak pelvis rotation speed (r = .687, P = .02). Significant relationships existed between 90°/90° golf position and clubhead speed (r = .716, P = .01); ball speed (r = .777, P = .01); seated trunk rotation and peak pelvis rotation speed (r = .606, P = .048); single-leg balance and handicap (r = −.722, P = .01); torso rotation and handicap (r = −.637,P = .04); and torso rotation and peak pelvis rotation speed (r = .741, P = .01). Single-leg balance, overhead deep squat, and pelvic tilt were the GSFMS tests which participants had most difficulty in performing. The most common swing faults identified included loss of posture, slide, chicken winging, and early hip extension. Conclusions: The GSFMS may be used to identify movement limitations that relate to golfing performance. These findings may potentially allow intervention to correct movement patterns and potentially improve golf performance.
Ross Armstrong, Christopher Michael Brogden and Matt Greig
Context: Dance requires the performance of complex movements that may exceed normal anatomical range. However, in hypermobile individuals, this may have implications for injury and performance. Objectives: The aim of the study was to investigate the efficacy of the Beighton score (BS) in predicting mechanical loading in dancers in hypermobile and nonhypermobile dancers with consideration of accelerometer placement and lumbar flexion hypermobility. Design: Cohort study, clinical measurement. Setting: University. Participants: A total of 34 dancers had their joint hypermobility assessed by the BS. Participants completed the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test with a global positioning device incorporating a triaxial accelerometer located at the cervico-thoracic junction (C7) and one at the midbelly of the gastrocnemius. Main Outcome Measures: Accelerometry data were used to calculate PlayerLoad total, PlayerLoad medial-lateral, PlayerLoad anterior–posterior, and PlayerLoad vertical. Physiological response was measured via heart rate and fatigue response by rate of perceived exertion. Results: The total BS was a poor predictor of all mechanical loading directions with PlayerLoad anterior-posterior C7 (r = .15) and PlayerLoad total lower limb (r = .20) the highest values. Multiple linear regression was a better predictor with values of C7 (r = .43) and lower limb (r = .37). No significant difference existed between hypermobile and nonhypermobile subjects for mechanical loading values for all stages of the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test and for heart rate and fatigue responses. Conclusions: The BS is not a good predictor of mechanical loading which is similar in hypermobile and nonhypermobile dancers for all levels of the Dance Aerobic Fitness Test. Mechanical loading and fatigue responses are similar between hypermobile and nonhypermobile dancers.