simple, reliable, and objective method of assessing daily steps. A systematic literature review ( Wright, Hall Brown, Collier, & Sandberg, 2017 ) focused attention on the use of activity trackers in biomedical research and summarized the types of clinical research being done in this area. Most of these
David R. Bassett, Patty S. Freedson and Dinesh John
John A. Hay, Brock University and John Cairney
An understanding of the habitual physical activity levels of children with chronic disorders is an important consideration relevant to both treatment and clinical monitoring (8). However, a feasible and useful tool for measuring the physical activity levels of children with chronic illness in clinical settings is not readily available. In this article, we review the development and initial psychometric testing (i.e., construct and reliability) of the Habitual Activity Estimation Scale (HAES), a measure developed for use in clinical research. A summary of these investigations suggests that the HAES appears both valid and reliable as a measure of activity in pediatric populations.
Kevin M. Guskiewicz
Column-editor : Brent L. Arnold
Gal Ziv and Ronnie Lidor
The purpose of this study was to review a series of studies (n = 20) examining the effects of adding music to exercise programs in clinical populations and in the elderly. We found that the addition of music can (a) improve exercise capacity and increase patients’ motivation to participate in cardiac and pulmonary exercise rehabilitation programs; (b) lead to improved balance, greater ability to perform activities of daily living, and improved life satisfaction in elderly individuals; (c) enhance adherence and function of individuals suffering from neurological diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s; and (d) sustain these benefits if continued on a long-term basis. Based on the reviewed studies, a number of methodological concerns were presented, among them the choice of music style. One of the practical implications suggested for clinicians and practitioners was that the type of music should be individualized based on each patient’s musical preferences.
Michael R. Sitler
Knee and ankle injuries continue to be ever present at all levels of athletic participation. A relatively recent approach in injury intervention is the use of prophylactic knee braces (PKB) and ankle stabilizers (AS). Prophylactic braces are used to reduce the frequency and severity of injuries in a cost effective manner, but their clinical efficacy has been questioned. Specific to PKB, there is little agreement among the results of studies completed to date as to their effectiveness in reducing the incidence of knee injuries. This is attributed to a lack of control of confounding variables that mitigate the interpretive findings of many studies. Although the clinical research regarding AS is limited, it appears that they are effective in reducing the incidence of acute ankle injuries. Recommendations for future study as well as considerations for clinical research analysis are presented.
Rod A. Harter
Ankle injuries are the most common type of injury in sport worldwide, with ankle sprains accounting for 15% of all injuries. In this paper, the most recent, significant clinical research findings related to closed chain functional testing and rehabilitation of the ankle will be summarized. Biomechanical, physiological, and neurological rationales for integrated utilization of open and closed chain rehabilitation for the ankle will be discussed.
John T. Parsons and Alison R. Snyder
Health-related quality of life (HRQOL) is a broad, multidimensional concept that refers to a synthesis of several health domains including the physical, psychological, and social domains, all of which are affected by individual experiences, expectations, beliefs, and perceptions. HRQOL also shares a well-established connection with contemporary disablement models, which enhances its utility for identifying individual experience, expectations, and values, which can also influence the way a person views his or her health status. However, the routine evaluation of HRQOL in clinical research and patient care in the field of sport rehabilitation remains limited. HRQOL has implications for both athletes who suffer sport-related injury (SRI) and those who care for them. The purpose of this article is to help clinicians and researchers understand HRQOL as a primary outcome in sport rehabilitation. First, the article provides a definition of HRQOL and explains its relationship to contemporary disablement models. Next, research demonstrating that HRQOL is sensitive to both athletic participation and to SRI in athletes at both secondary school and college levels is reviewed. Finally, several important clinical tools that can be used to measure HRQOL by both clinicians and clinical researchers are presented. Criteria to be used in selecting these tools are also presented.
Peter R. Giacobbi Jr., Matthew P. Buman, Kimberly J. Romney, Monica R. Klatt and Mari J. Stoddard
The purpose of this review was to evaluate the scope, impact, and methods of research funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) in kinesiology departments. Information was obtained from university websites, the Research Portfolio Online Reporting Tool (RePORT), PubMed, Google Scholar, and Journal Citation Reports (JCR) from the Institute of Scientific Information (ISI) Web of Knowledge. Abstracts from 2,227 published studies funded by the NIH were reviewed. The National Institute on Aging funded the largest portion of grants. Metabolic functioning, the nervous system, pathology, and cardiovascular diseases were the major foci. Human and animal studies were predominantly discovery-oriented (e.g., comparative studies, clinical research) with a large percentage of translational approaches. Recommendations for interdisciplinary research are provided.
Carolyn Jimenez, Mayra Santiago, Michael Sitler, Guenther Boden and Carol Homko
Little is known about the acute effects of resistance exercise on insulin sensitivity in people with type 1 diabetes.
Repeated-measures design with 2 independent variables: group (exercise and nonexercise control) and time (preexercise and 12 and 36 h postexercise).
General Clinical Research Center, Temple University Hospital, Philadelphia, PA.
14 physically active subjects (11 men and 3 women) with type 1 diabetes.
The exercise group completed 5 sets of 6 repetitions of strenuous (80% 1-RM) quadriceps and hamstring exercises while the control group performed only activities of daily Living.
Main Outcome Measures:
Insulin sensitivity was assessed with the euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic-clamp technique preexercise and 12 and 36 h postexercise.
Insulin-sensitivity values were not significantly different between the exercise and control groups (P = .92) or over time (P = .67).
A single bout of strenuous resistance exercise does not alter insulin sensitivity in people with type 1 diabetes.
Adrienne E. Hunt and Richard M. Smith
Three-dimensional ankle joint moments were calculated in two separate coordinate systems, from 18 healthy men during the stance phase of walking, and were then compared. The objective was to determine the extent of differences in the calculated moments between these two commonly used systems and their impact on interpretation. Video motion data were obtained using skin surface markers, and ground reaction force data were recorded from a force platform. Moments acting on the foot were calculated about three orthogonal axes, in a global coordinate system (GCS) and also in a segmental coordinate system (SCS). No differences were found for the sagittal moments. However, compared to the SCS, the GCS significantly (p < .001) overestimated the predominant invertor moment at midstance and until after heel rise. It also significantly (p < .05) underestimated the late stance evertor moment. This frontal plane discrepancy was attributed to sensitivity of the GCS to the degree of abduction of the foot. For the transverse plane, the abductor moment peaked earlier (p < .01) and was relatively smaller (p < .01) in the GCS. Variability in the transverse plane was greater for the SCS, and attributed to its sensitivity to the degree of rearfoot inversion. We conclude that the two coordinate systems result in different calculations of nonsagittal moments at the ankle joint during walking. We propose that the body-based SCS provides a more meaningful interpretation of function than the GCS and would be the preferred method in clinical research, for example where there is marked abduction of the foot.