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Edward W. Gregg, Andrea M. Kriska, Kathleen M. Fox and Jane A. Cauley

Self-rated health has been related to functional status, disability, and mortality in a variety of populations. This study examined whether self-rated health was related to physical activity levels independent of functional status in a population of older women. For this study, 9,704 women aged 65-99 rated their health on a scale ranging from excellent to very poor. Physical activity and functional status questionnaires and physical function tests were administered to evaluate levels of physical activity, strength, and function. Comparisons between women in three groups of self-rated health (good and excellent; fair; poor and very poor) indicated that higher self-rated health was strongly related to physical activity independent of physical strength, functional status, and co-morbidity. These findings suggest that physical activity is an important determinant of self-rated health in older women regardless of functional status.

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Willemijn M.J. van Rooij, H.J.G. van den Berg-Emons, Herwin L.D. Horemans, Malou H.J. Fanchamps, Fred A. de Laat and Johannes B.J. Bussmann

, Dillon, Granger, & Barr, 2019 ; van den Berg-Emons, Bussmann, & Stam, 2010 ). This will not only result in reduced health (e.g., increased co-morbidity such as cardiovascular diseases [ Biswas et al., 2015 ]), but also in a reduced functional capacity to perform activities of daily living ( Theeven et

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André O. Werneck, Evelyn C.A. Silva, Maria R.O. Bueno, Lidyane Z. Vignadelli, Adewale L. Oyeyemi, Catiana L.P. Romanzini, Enio R.V. Ronque and Marcelo Romanzini

, Bansback N , Amarsi Z , Birmingham CL , Anis AH . The incidence of co-morbidities related to obesity and overweight: a systematic review and meta-analysis . BMC Public Health . 2009 ; 9 ( 1 ): 88 . doi:10.1186/1471-2458-9-88 19320986 10.1186/1471-2458-9-88 14. Hinckson E , Salmon J

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Scott W. Cheatham and Morey J. Kolber

stretch tolerance, increased parasympathetic activity from mechanoreceptor activity, or suppression of H-reflexes. 6 , 26 The observed acute changes in this study were from a healthy population. In the presence of injury or co-morbidity, outcomes may have been different. These results provide a basis for

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Michelle A. Sandrey

history, observation, palpation, ROM, and look for any co-morbidities (i.e., sacroiliac joint) from sites proximal and distal to the chief complaint. Ultimately, if instability is suspected, no diagnosis is complete without the information gained from diagnostic imaging. Once the evaluation is concluded

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Rosanna Gilderthorp, Jan Burns and Fergal Jones

McLaren and Bryson ( 1987 ). It is interesting that the link between IQ and level of additional disability was replicated, even within a sporting population where it might be expected that the sample would be biased towards more physically able individuals. This link between IQ and co-morbidity

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Colin B. Shore, Gill Hubbard, Trish Gorely, Robert Polson, Angus Hunter and Stuart D. Galloway

SU , Sniehotta FF , Avenell A , Johnston M , MacLennan G , Araújo-Soares V . Identifying active ingredients in complex behavioural interventions for obese adults with obesity-related co-morbidities or additional risk factors for co-morbidities: a systematic review . Health Psychol

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Baruch Vainshelboim, Zhongming Chen, Ricardo M. Lima and Jonathan Myers

and meta-analysis . Eur J Cancer . 2019 ; 113 : 58 – 68 . PubMed ID: 30981949 doi:10.1016/j.ejca.2019.03.008 10.1016/j.ejca.2019.03.008 27. Sydo N , Merkely B , Carta KAG , et al . Effect of cardiorespiratory fitness on co-morbidities and mortality in never, past, and current smokers . Am

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Yongwoo Lee, Wonjae Choi, Kyeongjin Lee, Changho Song and Seungwon Lee

. , Friger , M. , & Clarfield , A.M. ( 2007 ). The effect of co-morbidity on the rehabilitation process in elderly patients after hip fracture . Archives of Gerontology and Geriatrics, 45 ( 3 ), 281 – 294 . PubMed doi:10.1016/j.archger.2007.01.059 10.1016/j.archger.2007.01.059 Rosenberg , D

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Andrea L. Hergenroeder, Bethany Barone Gibbs, Mary P. Kotlarczyk, Subashan Perera, Robert J. Kowalsky and Jennifer S. Brach

.2.167 Rigler , S.K. , Studenski , S. , Wallace , D. , Reker , D.M. , & Duncan , P.W. ( 2002 ). Co-morbidity adjustment for functional outcomes in community-dwelling older adults . Clinical Rehabilitation, 16 ( 4 ), 420 – 428 . PubMed ID: 12061477 doi:10.1191/0269215502cr515oa 10