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Patti Finke, Janet Hamilton, Warren Finke and Mike Broderick

The RRCA Coaching Certification program is a model for national coaching education. The goal of the RRCA coaching certification is to provide trained individuals to work as coaching professionals for the sport of distance running at all levels from beginner to advanced runners. A coaching program for distance running attracts more individuals to the sport, and more importantly, helps individuals train intelligently, extend their running careers, have more fun running, and minimize the risks of overuse injuries. The program has certified over 1600 coaches across the US.

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Lee J. Nelson and Christopher J. Cushion

Research frequently demonstrates that coaches learn by reflecting on practical coaching experience (Gilbert & Trudel, 2001), hence both reflection and experience have been identified as essential elements of coach education (Cushion, Armour, & Jones, 2003). The case being studied was a United Kingdom (UK) National Governing Body (NGB) in the process of developing a coach education program. The purpose of this study was to empirically explore the use of reflection as a conceptual underpinning to connect and understand coach education, theory, and practice. Findings suggest that the curriculum could promote reflective practice, albeit in a largely decontextualized learning environment. Future research should attempt to directly measure, in situ, the impact of such courses on coaching knowledge and coaching practice.

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Ronald W. Quinn, Sheri Huckleberry and Sam Snow

Coaching education has been part of the United States soccer landscape for over 40 years. However, the education of youth soccer coaches is a recent phenomenon. The purpose of this study was threefold: a) to provide contextual reflections of the USSF National Youth Coaching License (NYL); b) to share the impact of the course on coaching efficacy; and 3) to critically discuss the implications of the lessons learned through these reflections and research on the design of quality coach education for youth sport coaches. The statistical evidence in conjunction with reflective comments demonstrate that The Game in the Child model and the NYL curriculum provide the contextual framework for an effective L-S coaching education program.

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Diane M. Culver, Penny Werthner and Pierre Trudel

The focus of this paper is the Canadian National Coaching Certification Program (NCCP), a large-scale formal coach education programme. Beginning in the early 2000s, revisions to the programme have moved the NCCP from an instructor-centred to a learner-centred programme. Through an examination of

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Rui Resende, Pedro Sequeira and Hugo Sarmento

The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of coaching and coaching education in Portugal. In Portugal, sport coaching is traditionally considered a part-time vocation. There has been a growing concern of the Portuguese authorities to increase the standards of quality for sport coaching. Following the 1974 revolution there were profound alterations in how coaching and coach education are regulated. The legislative changes in coach education occurred mainly due to the harmonisation of the qualifications in the European Union. More recently, the responsibility for coach certification has moved from the different sports federations to a national sports organization that has created four grades of coach education. Coach education in all grades requires a general and a specific curricular component as well as an internship supervised by an accredited mentor. The academic formation is now well regulated. However, some sport federations are resistant to this academic certification process because they fear losing their exclusive control of their coach certification.

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Steven Couture, Benoit Lamarche, Eliane Morissette, Veronique Provencher, Pierre Valois, Claude Goulet and Vicky Drapeau

The objectives of this study were to evaluate high school coaches’ knowledge in sports nutrition and the nutritional practices they recommend to their athletes. Forty-seven high school coaches in “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports from the greater region of Quebec (women = 44.7%) completed a questionnaire on nutritional knowledge and practices. “Leanness sports” were defined as sports where leanness or/and low bodyweight were considered important (e.g., cheerleading, swimming and gymnastics), and “non-leanness sports” were defined as sports where these factors are less important (e.g., football). Participants obtained a total mean score of 68.4% for the nutrition knowledge part of the questionnaire. More specifically, less than 30% of the coaches could answer correctly some general nutrition questions regarding carbohydrates and lipids. No significant difference in nutrition knowledge was observed between coaches from “leanness” and “non-leanness” sports or between men and women. Respondents with a university education scored higher than the others (73.3% vs. 63.3%, p < .05). Coaches who participated in coaching certification also obtained better results than those without a coaching certification. The most popular source of information about nutrition used by coaches was the Internet at 55%. The two most popular nutrition practices that coaches recommended to improve athlete performance were hydration and consumption of protein-rich foods. Recommendation for nutritional supplements use was extremely rare and was suggested only by football coaches, a nonleanness sport. Findings from this study indicate that coaches need sports nutrition education and specific training.

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Tshepang Tshube and Stephanie J. Hanrahan

The purpose of this paper is to present the status of coaching in Botswana, particularly key developments in policies and practice. In addressing this purpose, authors referred to the National Sport and Recreation Policy, the Botswana National Olympic Committee (BNOC), the Botswana National Sport Commission (BNSC), and National Reports. The authors first give a brief overview of Botswana’s geo-political, cultural, and economic status. Following the contextualization of Botswana sports, the authors present available coach education programs and BNSC and BNOC plans regarding the development of coaches in Botswana. Topics include qualification, remuneration, and recruitment of coaches. In conclusion, the authors provide suggestions such as the development and implementation of coaches’ certification program and research.

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Vladislav A. Bespomoshchnov and Leonid V. Mikhno

The purpose of article is to provide an overview of coaching and coach education in Russia with a focus on ice hockey coaching. The coach education system in Russia is in a transitional stage. Previously, it was a threestage model: Baccalaureate Degree, Specialist Degree and Master’s Degree in any sport (Mikhno, Vinokurov, & Maryanovich, 2004). However, a law created by The Ministry of Sport (2014) delegated the establishment of a coaching certification system to each of the sports federations. The Russian Ice Hockey Federation (RIHF) proposed a 4-level license system. The N.G. Puchkov’s Ice Hockey Coaching Academy is the modern school for ice hockey coaches, which has evolved from Tarasov’s Higher Education School for Ice Hockey Coaches. Anatoly Tarasov is the Russian ice hockey coach who developed the system in the 1920s when ice hockey was first introduced to the USSR. Ice hockey coach education in Russia is gradually developing every year.

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Ashley E. Stirling

Coach education is the key to improved coaching. In order for coach education initiatives to be effective though, the conceptualization of those initiatives must be developed based on empirical learning theory. It is suggested that Kolb’s theory of experiential learning may be an appropriate learning theory to apply to coach education. This paper outlines how Kolb’s theory of experiential learning was used in the development of Canada’s National Coaching Certification Program coach education module entitled “Empower +: Creating Positive and Healthy Sport Experiences.” The module is summarized briefly, and Kolb’s six key tenets of experiential learning are reviewed. Applications of each tenet within the coach education module are highlighted, and recommendations are made for future evaluation and research.

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Kristen Dieffenbach

In 2006 the updated standards for coaching education programs concerning the eight NASPE coach knowledge area domains (National Standards for Sport Coaches, 2006) were released. Despite these standards and an increased awareness regarding the importance of area-specific knowledge (Nash & Collins, 2006), the culture of sport often requires little to no formalized science-based training for coaches. U.S. coaches typically enter the profession through volunteer or assistant coach type experiences with little to no formal training. While hands-on experience is important, it leaves many coaches with training knowledge gaps. In an effort to meet the needs of aspiring coaches and to increase the professionalism and the qualifications of coaches working with athletes, many U.S. sport national governing bodies (NGB’s) offer coaching certification programs. However, little is known about how to best disseminate information in a manner that will meet both the needs and learning styles of practicing coaches. This study focuses on the learning preferences, habits and attitudes of one NGB group – USA Cycling licensed coaches.