When athletes “uncritically accept” the coaching expectations associated with their sport, negative health consequences (e.g., disordered eating behaviors, clinical eating disorders) may result. The coach’s influence on disordered eating behaviors may be a product of factors related to overconformity to the sport ethic, issues with coach communication regarding recommendations for weight management, and the strength of the coach-athlete relationship. The present study investigated perceived weight-related coach pressure, the coach-athlete relationship, and disordered eating behaviors by surveying 248 female varsity athletes and dancers from four universities. Mediational analysis revealed that the coach-athlete relationship was a partial mediating variable between perceived coach pressures and disordered eating behaviors. Subsequently, strong relationships between coaches and their athletes may reduce the negative impact of perceived weight-related coach pressure on the development or exacerbation of disordered eating behaviors in female collegiate athletes.
Ashley Coker-Cranney and Justine J. Reel
Daniel J. Madigan, Thomas Curran, Joachim Stoeber, Andrew P. Hill, Martin M. Smith, and Louis Passfield
coach pressure ( Appleton & Curran, 2016 ). Against this backdrop, the aim of the present study was to examine the extent to which pressure to be perfect from parents and coaches showed cross-sectional and longitudinal relationships with perfectionism in junior athletes. Perfectionism Perfectionism is
Sam S. Sagar and Joachim Stoeber
This study investigated how aspects of perfectionism in athletes (N = 388) related to the fears of failure proposed by Conroy et al. (2002), and how perfectionism and fears of failure predicted positive and negative affect after imagined success and failure in sports competitions. Results showed that perfectionistic personal standards showed a negative relationship with fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment and a positive relationship with positive affect after success, whereas perfectionistic concern over mistakes and perceived parental pressure showed a positive relationship with fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment and with negative affect after failure. Moreover, fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment fully mediated the relationship between perfectionistic concern and negative affect and between coach pressure and negative affect. The findings demonstrate that fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment is central in the relationship between perfectionism and fear of failure, and that perfectionistic concern about mistakes and perceived coach pressure are aspects of perfectionism that predict fear of experiencing shame and embarrassment and negative affect after failure.
John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn, and Daniel G. Syrotuik
This study examined the relationship between perfectionism and goal orientations among male Canadian Football players (M age = 18.24 years). Athletes (N = 174) completed inventories to assess perfectionist orientations and goal orientations in sport. Perfectionism was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and was measured with a newly constructed sport-specific version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Exploratory factor analysis of the modified MPS revealed four sport-related perfectionism dimensions: perceived parental pressure, personal standards, concern over mistakes, and perceived coach pressure. Canonical correlation analysis obtained two significant canonical functions (R C1 = .36; R C2 = .30). The first one revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with an adaptive profile of perfectionism. The second one revealed that ego orientation was positively associated with a maladaptive profile of perfectionism. Results are discussed in the context of Hamachek’s (1978) conceptualization of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism.
Annamari Maaranen, Judy L. Van Raalte, and Britton W. Brewer
significant mean correlations between flikikammo and coach pressure, competition pressure, energy level, and stress are presented in Table 4 . Table 2 Intraindividual Correlations of Flikikammo Severity With Confidence, Coach Pressure, Physical Well-Being, Energy Level, and Stress Level Isabella Emily Ashley
Erika D. Van Dyke, Aaron Metzger, and Sam J. Zizzi
distinct profiles of perfectionism based on the Sport Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (Sport-MPS; Dunn, Causgrove Dunn, & Syrotuik, 2002 ): (a) adaptive perfectionists—high personal standards, low concern over mistakes, moderate perceived parent/coach pressures; (b) maladaptive perfectionists
Sebastian Altfeld, Paul Schaffran, Jens Kleinert, and Michael Kellmann
. ( 2000 , December 17 ). Pro Football: For many NFL coaches, pressure is toughest opponent . The New York Times . Retrieved from http://www.nytimes.com/2000/11/17/sports/pro-football-for-many-nfl-coaches-pressure-is-toughest-opponent.html Frey , M. ( 2007 ). College coaches’ experiences with
Jenny H. Conviser, Amanda Schlitzer Tierney, and Riley Nickols
). Coach pressure and disordered eating in female collegiate athletes: Is the coach-athlete relationship a mediating factor? Journal of Clinical Sport Psychology, 9 , 213 – 231 . doi:10.1123/jcsp.2014-0052 10.1123/jcsp.2014-0052 Cook , B.J. , Wonderlich , S.A. , Mitchell , J.E. , Thompson , R
A.P. (Karin) de Bruin and Raôul R.D. Oudejans
normalize and reinforce their dieting behaviors, which maintained their ED, according to them. All athletes could recall several negative experiences with coaches who put too much one-sided pressure on the athletes’ weight, shape, or appearance. Frequently, the weight-related coach pressure manifested
Mustafa Sarkar and Nathan K. Hilton
semi-structured interview guide was constructed with five sections focusing on background information, coaching pressures/setbacks/adversities, coaches’ personal resilience, developing resilience in athletes, and practical suggestions for aspiring elite coaches. Specifically, the interview began by