Organized youth sports afford a unique opportunity for promoting positive youth development, but little is known about why these settings can be beneficial for youth. The purposes of this article are (a) to discuss the instrumental role coaches play in determining the developmental yield of sport participation for youth and (b) to examine the efficacy of coach training programs for enhancing youth development in light of an expanded model of coaching effects on youth. This model features an elaborated internalization mechanism involving cognitive and motivational pathways. Emerging support for this model is reviewed and future directions for coach training researchers and practitioners are highlighted.
David E. Conroy and J. Douglas Coatsworth
Bradley Fawver, Garrett F. Beatty, John T. Roman and Kevin Kurtz
existing coach training models are arduously complex and highly variable in terms of adopted standards across sport domains and level of competition. Within certain sports, there are few affordable and accessible educational opportunities for aspiring coaches, so many individuals predominantly rely on
Fernando Santos, Daniel Gould and Leisha Strachan
). Coaches’ perceptions of a coach training program designed to promote youth developmental outcomes . Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 24 ( 4 ), 429 – 444 . doi:10.1080/10413200.2012.692452 Flett , M. , Gould , D.R. , Griffes , K.R. , & Lauer , L. ( 2012 ). The views of more versus less
Frank L. Smoll, Ronald E. Smith and Sean P. Cumming
Mastery-oriented motivational climates and achievement goal orientations have been associated with a range of salutary and clinically relevant outcomes in both educational and sport research. In view of this, an intervention was developed for youth sport coaches designed to promote a mastery motivational climate, and a field experiment was conducted to assess its effects on changes in athletes’ achievement goal orientations over the course of a sport season. The experimental group was comprised of 155 boys and girls, who played for 20 basketball coaches; 70 youngsters played for 17 control group coaches. The coach intervention resulted in higher Mastery-climate scores and lower Ego-climate scores compared with the control condition, and athletes who played for the trained coaches exhibited significant increases in Mastery goal orientation scores and significant decreases in Ego-orientation scores across the season, whereas control group participants did not. Practical and theoretical implications of the findings are discussed.
Ronald E. Smith, Frank L. Smoll and Sean P. Cumming
The mastery approach to coaching is a cognitive-behavioral intervention designed to promote a mastery-involving motivational climate, shown in previous research to be related to lower anxiety in athletes. We tested the effects of this intervention on motivational climate and on changes in male and female athletes’ cognitive and somatic performance anxiety over the course of a basketball season. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that the athletes in the intervention condition perceived their coaches as being more mastery-involving on the Motivational Climate Scale for Youth Sports when compared to athletes in an untreated control condition. Relative to athletes who played for untrained coaches, those who played for the trained coaches exhibited decreases on all subscales of the Sport Anxiety Scale-2 and on total anxiety score from preseason to late season. Control group athletes reported increases in anxiety over the season. The intervention had equally positive effects on boys and girls teams.
Larissa Galatti, Otavio Baggiotto Bettega, Vinícius Zeilmann Brasil, Antonio Evanhoé Pereira de Souza Sobrinho, Rachael Bertram, Alexandre Vinicius Bobato Tozetto, Heitor Andrade Rodrigues, Carine Collet, Juarez Nascimento and Michel Milistetd
Sport coaches in Brazil have been recognized as professionals since the implementation of law 9696 in 1998. However, little is known about the impact of this law on the production of coaching science in this country. In an attempt to situate the sports coaching research produced in Brazil since then, the aim of the current study was to show an overview of Brazilian publications from 2000 to 2015. Eight journals were selected and a review was performed in 425 issues of the journals from 2000 to 2015. As a result, 82 published articles were analyzed. On average, five articles were published each year, with 81.7% of the articles published from 2009 to 2015. The findings illustrate that 37.7% of the articles were focused on coaches’ thinking and 29.5% on coaches’ behaviors, 48.7% used qualitative methods, while 40.3% used quantitative methods and 20.9% used mixed methods. Only two articles attempted to explore the impact of the 1998 legislation on the development of sport coaches in Brazil. In general, research on sport coaching in Brazil seems to be emerging on an international level, as there has been an increase in publications over the past seven years, especially in the lead-up to the Rio2016 Summer Olympic Games.
Joseph J. Gurgis, Gretchen A. Kerr and Ashley E. Stirling
, 46,280 coaches completed coach training, and yet only 10% of trained coaches became fully certified through the evaluation phase ( CAC, 2015 ). Further, in spite of the low rate of certification among Canadian coaches, there is an increasing, upward trend of coaches registering in formal education
Bettina Callary, Scott Rathwell and Bradley W. Young
this article is to explore swim coaches’ perceptions of how they have learned to coach MAs and whether they perceive their formal coach training to meet their needs in coaching MAs. Methods We approached this research with an interpretivist epistemology in which we sought to explore not only the
Tiago Duarte, Diane M. Culver and Kyle Paquette
associated with coach training, and the low number of athletes are all barriers to coaches’ learning. Therefore, an intervention for these WC coaches should be tailored to create meaningful learning opportunities that mitigate such barriers and leverage the current infrastructure. More specifically, based on
Susumu Iwasaki and Mary D. Fry
This study highlights how sport psychology professionals can assist sport administrators in evaluating and strengthening youth sport programs. A sport psychology research team provided expertise to two sport administrators to develop a survey to examine their athletes’ experiences participating in the programs. The study examines the relationship between athletes’ perceptions of the climate (caring, task, and ego involving) to their intrinsic motivation, caring behaviors, and future intention to participate in the sport. Volleyball clinic (Sample 1: N = 71) and basketball summer camp (Sample 2: N = 138) participants completed the survey. Canonical correlation analyses for each sample revealed one significant function indicating that the athletes’ perceptions of a caring/task-involving climate, along with low perceptions of an ego-involving climate, were associated with higher levels of intrinsic motivation, caring behaviors, and future desire to participate. Sport administrators can use this information for coach training, parent education and overall program evaluation.