Four studies were conducted to assess the psychometric properties and the theoretical basis of a version of the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Relationships, which was originally developed and validated for the assessment of romantic relationships, in a different relational context (i.e., coach-athlete relationships). The first study aimed to address the content validity of the modified inventory, the Inventory of Desirable Responding in Coach-Athlete Relationship (IDR-CART) scale. The second study employed factor analytic techniques to examine its psychometric properties. Results confirmed the two-factor structure of the inventory: self-deception (CART-SD) and impression management (CART-IM). In the third study, data were collected under public and anonymous conditions. Results revealed, however, that neither condition supported the factor structure, thereby casting doubt on theoretical assumptions. The fourth study demonstrated that CART-SD is associated with indices of relationship quality, providing evidence of convergent validity. Limitations and future research directions are discussed.
Victoria McGee and J.D. DeFreese
individuals through both good and bad sport-related experiences ( Jowett & Shanmugam, 2016 ; Jowett & Wylleman, 2006 ). Thus, a deeper understanding of the impact the coach-athlete relationship has on specific athlete psychological outcomes including athlete burnout and engagement has potential theoretical
Ashley Coker-Cranney and Justine J. Reel
When athletes “uncritically accept” the coaching expectations associated with their sport, negative health consequences (e.g., disordered eating behaviors, clinical eating disorders) may result. The coach’s influence on disordered eating behaviors may be a product of factors related to overconformity to the sport ethic, issues with coach communication regarding recommendations for weight management, and the strength of the coach-athlete relationship. The present study investigated perceived weight-related coach pressure, the coach-athlete relationship, and disordered eating behaviors by surveying 248 female varsity athletes and dancers from four universities. Mediational analysis revealed that the coach-athlete relationship was a partial mediating variable between perceived coach pressures and disordered eating behaviors. Subsequently, strong relationships between coaches and their athletes may reduce the negative impact of perceived weight-related coach pressure on the development or exacerbation of disordered eating behaviors in female collegiate athletes.
Phil Ferrar, Lillian Hosea, Miles Henson, Nadine Dubina, Guy Krueger, Jamie Staff and Wade Gilbert
other to ultimately reach their goals. The coach-athlete relationship is a well-established area of study in the coaching literature and is becoming a more targeted area of development in coaching curriculums ( Evans, McGuckin, Gainforth, Bruner, & Coté, 2015 ; Smith, Smoll, & Cummings, 2007
Tammy Horne and Albert V. Carron
Three major issues were examined in the present study: (a) the variables discriminating between compatible and incompatible coach-athlete dyads; (b) the relationship between coach-athlete compatibility and athlete performance; and (c) the relationship between compatibility and athlete satisfaction. Subjects were 77 coach-athlete dyads from female intercollegiate teams. Compatibility was assessed using a sport-adapted version of Schutz's (1966) Fundamental Interpersonal Relations Orientation (FIRO-B) scale and Chelladurai and Saleh's (1980) Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). Self-ratings of the quality of the coach-athlete relationship, athlete performance, and satisfaction with the coach's leadership were obtained. There were two variables that significantly discriminated between compatible and incompatible dyads. The sole variable predicting athletes' performance perceptions was the score reflecting discrepancy between athlete perceptions and preferences on the LSS reward dimension. Variables predicting athlete satisfaction were discrepancy between athlete perceptions and preferences on the LSS dimensions of training, reward, and social support. Recommendations for future research in this area are discussed.
Ben Jackson, Peter Knapp and Mark R. Beauchamp
The purpose of the current study was to identify putative antecedents and consequences associated with self-efficacy, other-efficacy, and relation-inferred self-efficacy, within the context of elite coach-athlete dyads. Semistructured interviews were conducted with each member of six international-level coach-athlete partnerships, and data were analyzed using inductive and deductive content analytic techniques. Results for both athletes and coaches demonstrated that the above ‘tripartite efficacy beliefs’ (cf. Lent & Lopez, 2002) were identified as originating from perceptions regarding oneself, inferences regarding the ‘other’ dyad member (e.g., the athlete’s coach), as well as the dyad as a whole. Results also revealed that the tripartite efficacy constructs were interrelated, and independently associated with a number of positive task-related and relationship-oriented consequences. Findings are considered in relation to developing and sustaining effective coach-athlete relationships at the elite level.
Marc-André K. Lafrenière, Sophia Jowett, Robert J. Vallerand, Eric G. Donahue and Ross Lorimer
Vallerand et al. (2003) developed a dualistic model of passion, wherein two types of passion are proposed: harmonious (HP) and obsessive (OP) passion that predict adaptive and less adaptive interpersonal outcomes, respectively. In the present research, we were interested in understanding the role of passion in the quality of coach–athlete relationships. Results of Study 1, conducted with athletes (N = 157), revealed that HP positively predicts a high-quality coach–athlete relationship, whereas OP was largely unrelated to such relationships. Study 2 was conducted with coaches (N = 106) and showed that only HP positively predicted the quality of the coach–athlete relationship. Furthermore, these effects were fully mediated by positive emotions. Finally, the quality of the coach–athlete relationship positively predicted coaches’ subjective well-being. Future research directions are discussed in light of the dualistic model of passion.
Sophia Jowett and Melina Timson-Katchis
The study aims to explore the nature of influences that parents exert on the quality of the dyadic coach-athlete relationship. A conceptual model was proposed as a guiding framework for the study. The proposed model incorporates Sprecher, Felmlee, Orbuch, and Willets’ (2002) notion of social networks and Jowett and Cockerill’s (2002) conceptualization of coach-athlete relationships. Fifteen participants from five coach-athleteparent triads were interviewed, and content analysis revealed that athletes’ parents (a “psychologically significant” network member) provided a range of information, opportunities, and extensive emotional support, all of which influenced the quality of the coach-athlete relationship as defined by closeness, commitment, and complementarity. Results are discussed based on previous relevant research along with recommendations for future research directions and practical applications.
Sophia Jowett and Geoffrey A. Meek
This study examined the interpersonal athletic relationship of four married coach-athlete dyads. In order to facilitate the examination of this unique relationship, the interpersonal constructs of closeness, co-orientation, and complementarity were integrated into a conceptual-based model. The main purpose of this study was to establish the utility of the constructs in understanding the coach-athlete relationship in married couples. Following in-depth interviews, the responses of the participants were content analyzed. Analysis revealed that the coaches and athletes’ close relationship facilitated the formulation of a cooriented view of relevant and important issues which subsequently affected the way in which cooperative interactions were expressed in training. The relationship-oriented aspects of this unique dyad are discussed in relation to a proposed conceptualization of the coach-athlete relationship, and future directions are presented.
Christoph Rottensteiner, Niilo Konttinen and Lauri Laakso
The main purpose of this study was to examine the links of coach-athlete relationship (CAR) and perceived coach-created motivational climate to persistence in youth sport. A total of 1692 persistent and 543 withdrawn football, ice hockey, and basketball players, aged 15–16 years, completed the Coach-Athlete Relationship Questionnaire and the Perceived Motivational Climate Sport Questionnaire. Results indicated that persistent players reported higher scores in CAR and task-climate than withdrawn players. Persistent players also represented higher competition level, higher amount of training, and more years of involvement in sport than withdrawn players. Cluster analysis identified three profiles: 1) High CAR, high task climate, and moderate ego climate, 2) Moderate CAR, moderate task climate, and moderate ego climate, and 3) Low CAR, low task climate, and high ego climate. Differences between profiles were found in terms of relative proportion of continuing players, competition level, and amount of training. In all, Profile 1 appeared to be the most beneficial from the perspective of sport persistence. The present findings lend support for the view that coach-athlete relationship and motivational climate together can have implications for young athletes’ maintenance in organized sports.