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S. Jill Black and Maureen R. Weiss

Based on Barter's competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationships between perceived coaching behaviors and (a) perceptions of ability and (b) motivation in competitive age-group swimmers. Male and female athletes (N=312) assessed their coaches' behaviors and their own ability and motivation using self-report measures. Multivariate analyses indicated that significant relationships were found for males, females, 12–14-year-olds, and 15-18-year-olds. Variables contributing most importantly to the relationships differed depending upon gender and age group. In general, coaches who were perceived as giving more frequent information following desirable performances, and more frequent encouragement combined with information following undesirable performances, were associated with athletes who perceived higher levels of success, competence, enjoyment, and preference for optimally challenging activities. These results indicate that young athletes' self-perceptions and motivation are significantly related to the quantity and quality of coaching feedback they receive for performance successes and errors.

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Higinio González-García, Guillaume Martinent, and Michel Nicolas

Previous studies showed the salient impact of coaching behaviors on athletes’ outcomes, such as well-being, performance, or dropout ( Chia et al., 2015 ; González-García & Martinent, 2019 ; Hollembeak & Amorose, 2005 ; Ignacio et al., 2017 ). Researchers have noted how coaching practices can

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Erica Pasquini and Melissa Thompson

, unequitable coach behavior affects athletes’ overall satisfaction and performance outcomes, thus completing the cycle by reaffirming coaches’ initial expectations (Stage 4). Although previous research has been ambiguous as to whether this cycle is occurring in the recreational youth-sport setting, recent

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Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss, and Maria Newton

 al. ( 2014 ) investigated the content of communication between an athlete and coach by specifically looking at RISE-enhancing coaching behaviors. Using focus groups and one-on-one interviews, athletes ages 7–12 identified specific verbal and nonverbal coaching behaviors used to develop their RISE perceptions

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Jonathan Glen, Julie Gordon, and David Lavallee

April 20, 2020). Julie has a master’s degree in psychology of sport and, at the time of the case study, was enrolled in a doctoral degree in sport and exercise psychology. Julie had already invited Jonny (first author) and David (third author) to investigate coaching behavior in tennis prior to the

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Peter Iserbyt, Toon Dehandschutter, Hilde Leysen, and Hans van der Mars

purpose of this study was twofold. First, to investigate the effect of a coaching clinic with PSTs on student-coachesbehavior in a Sport Education basketball season. The season was embedded in a basketball content knowledge practicum. We hypothesized the clinic would positively affect student

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Laura J. Kenow and Jean M. Williams

Two experiments examined Smoll and Smith’s (1989) model of leadership behaviors in sport. The coaching behaviors of a male head coach of a collegiate women’s basketball team (n=11 players) were examined. The data supported competitive trait anxiety as an individual-difference variable that mediates athletes’ perception and evaluation of coaching behaviors. There also was support for adding athletes’ state cognitive anxiety, state self-confidence, and perception of the coach’s cognitive anxiety to the model as individual-difference variables. Athletes who scored high in trait anxiety (p<.001) and state cognitive anxiety (p<.05) and low in state self-confidence (p<.05), and athletes who perceived the coach as high in state cognitive anxiety (p<.001), evaluated coaching behavior more negatively. Game outcome may influence the effect of self-confidence in mediating athletes’ perception and evaluation of coaching behaviors. Additionally, athletes perceived several specific coaching behaviors more negatively than did the coach, and athletes drastically overestimated their coach’s self-reported pregame cognitive and somatic anxiety and underestimated his self-confidence. Overall, the results suggest that coaches should be more supportive and less negative with high anxious and low self-confident athletes.

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Sean P. Cumming, Ronald E. Smith, and Frank L. Smoll

For more than two decades, the behavioral categories of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS) and the Coaching Behavior Assessment System (CBAS) have been used by a wide range of researchers to measure coaching behaviors, yet little is known about how the behavioral categories in the two models relate statistically to one another. Male and female athletes on 63 high school teams (N = 645) completed the LSS and the athlete-perception version of the CBAS (CBAS-PBS) following the sport season, and they evaluated their coaches. Several of Chelladurai’s (1993) hypotheses regarding relations among behavioral categories of the two models were strongly supported. However, many significant and overlapping correlations between LSS subscales and CBAS-PBS behavioral categories cast doubt upon the specificity of relations between the two instruments. The LSS and the CBAS-PBS accounted for similar and notable amounts of variance in athletes’ liking for their coach and evaluations of their knowledge and teaching ability.

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Melissa S. Price and Maureen R. Weiss

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among coach burnout, coaching behaviors, and athletes’ psychological responses using Chelladurai’s (1980, 1990) multidimensional model of leadership as a theoretical framework. Two questions were addressed: (a) Do coaches who vary in level of burnout differ in the behaviors athletes perceive they exhibit? (b) Are coaching behaviors related to athletes’ enjoyment, perceived competence, anxiety, and burnout? A sample of 193 female soccer players and 15 head coaches of high school teams completed measures of the constructs of interest. Coaches higher in emotional exhaustion were perceived by their teams as providing less training and instruction and social support and making fewer autocratic and greater democratic decisions. For the second question, athletes’ perceptions of greater training and instruction, social support, positive feedback, democratic decisions, and less autocratic style were related to more positive (i.e., perceived competence, enjoyment) and less negative (i.e., anxiety, burnout) psychological outcomes.

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Nikos Zourbanos, Antonis Hatzigeorgiadis, Nikos Tsiakaras, Stiliani Chroni, and Yannis Theodorakis

The aim of the present research was to investigate the relationship between coaching behavior and athletes’ inherent self-talk (ST). Three studies were conducted. The first study tested the construct validity of the Coaching Behavior Questionnaire (CBQ) in the Greek language, and provided support for its original factor structure. The second study examined the relationships between coaching behavior and athletes’ ST in field, with two different samples. The results showed that supportive coaching behavior was positively related to positive ST (in one sample) and negatively related to negative ST (in both samples), whereas negative coaching behavior was negatively related to positive ST (in one sample) and positively related to negative ST (in both samples). Finally, the third study examined the relationships experimentally, to produce evidence regarding the direction of causality. The results showed that variations in coaching behavior affected participants’ ST. Overall, the results of the present investigation provided considerable evidence regarding the links between coaching behavior and athletes’ ST and suggested that coaches may have an impact on athletes’ thoughts.