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The Relationship Among Perceived Coaching Behaviors, Perceptions of Ability, and Motivation In Competitive Age-Group Swimmers

S. Jill Black and Maureen R. Weiss

Based on Barter's competence motivation theory, this study examined the relationships between perceived coaching behaviors and (a) perceptions of ability and (b) motivation in competitive age-group swimmers. Male and female athletes (N=312) assessed their coaches' behaviors and their own ability and motivation using self-report measures. Multivariate analyses indicated that significant relationships were found for males, females, 12–14-year-olds, and 15-18-year-olds. Variables contributing most importantly to the relationships differed depending upon gender and age group. In general, coaches who were perceived as giving more frequent information following desirable performances, and more frequent encouragement combined with information following undesirable performances, were associated with athletes who perceived higher levels of success, competence, enjoyment, and preference for optimally challenging activities. These results indicate that young athletes' self-perceptions and motivation are significantly related to the quantity and quality of coaching feedback they receive for performance successes and errors.

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A Temporal Study on Coach Behavior Profiles: Relationships With Athletes Coping and Affects Within Sport Competition

Higinio González-García, Guillaume Martinent, and Michel Nicolas

Previous studies showed the salient impact of coaching behaviors on athletes’ outcomes, such as well-being, performance, or dropout ( Chia et al., 2015 ; González-García & Martinent, 2019 ; Hollembeak & Amorose, 2005 ; Ignacio et al., 2017 ). Researchers have noted how coaching practices can

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Coaching Behaviors as Sources of Relation-Inferred Self-Efficacy (RISE) in American Male High School Athletes

Brock McMullen, Hester L. Henderson, Donna Harp Ziegenfuss, and Maria Newton

 al. ( 2014 ) investigated the content of communication between an athlete and coach by specifically looking at RISE-enhancing coaching behaviors. Using focus groups and one-on-one interviews, athletes ages 7–12 identified specific verbal and nonverbal coaching behaviors used to develop their RISE perceptions

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Investigating Coaching Behaviors During the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Case Study Within a Case Study

Jonathan Glen, Julie Gordon, and David Lavallee

April 20, 2020). Julie has a master’s degree in psychology of sport and, at the time of the case study, was enrolled in a doctoral degree in sport and exercise psychology. Julie had already invited Jonny (first author) and David (third author) to investigate coaching behavior in tennis prior to the

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Developing a Theory-Driven Intervention to Challenge Coach Thinking: A Case Study

Erica Pasquini and Melissa Thompson

, unequitable coach behavior affects athletes’ overall satisfaction and performance outcomes, thus completing the cycle by reaffirming coaches’ initial expectations (Stage 4). Although previous research has been ambiguous as to whether this cycle is occurring in the recreational youth-sport setting, recent

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Gender Differences in Coaching Behaviors Supportive of Positive Youth Sports Experience

Julie McCleery, Irina Tereschenko, Longxi Li, and Nicholas Copeland

sport participation on children and youth” ( Smith et al., 2007 , p. 40). Specific coaching behaviors across a range of constructs, including behaviors that create a mastery motivational climate and those consistent with autonomy-supportive coaching, affect the quality of the youth sports experience

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Systematic Review of the Coach–Athlete Relationship From the Coaches’ Perspective

Keith McShan and E. Whitney G. Moore

version 35, 38 Athletes’ variables  2d Athlete satisfaction .37       CART-Q 24     .31 to .44       Meta-CART-Q 24, 44  2e Teaching of life skills .27 to .50       CART-Q 2  2k Athlete’s avoidant attachment −.32 −.31       CART-Q Meta-CART-Q 24 Coaching behaviors  3a Engaging in need-supportive behavior

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The Effect of a Coaching Clinic on Student-Coaches’ Behavior During a Basketball Sport Education Season With Preservice Teachers

Peter Iserbyt, Toon Dehandschutter, Hilde Leysen, and Hans van der Mars

purpose of this study was twofold. First, to investigate the effect of a coaching clinic with PSTs on student-coachesbehavior in a Sport Education basketball season. The season was embedded in a basketball content knowledge practicum. We hypothesized the clinic would positively affect student

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Relationship between Anxiety, Self-Confidence, and Evaluation of Coaching Behaviors

Laura J. Kenow and Jean M. Williams

Two experiments examined Smoll and Smith’s (1989) model of leadership behaviors in sport. The coaching behaviors of a male head coach of a collegiate women’s basketball team (n=11 players) were examined. The data supported competitive trait anxiety as an individual-difference variable that mediates athletes’ perception and evaluation of coaching behaviors. There also was support for adding athletes’ state cognitive anxiety, state self-confidence, and perception of the coach’s cognitive anxiety to the model as individual-difference variables. Athletes who scored high in trait anxiety (p<.001) and state cognitive anxiety (p<.05) and low in state self-confidence (p<.05), and athletes who perceived the coach as high in state cognitive anxiety (p<.001), evaluated coaching behavior more negatively. Game outcome may influence the effect of self-confidence in mediating athletes’ perception and evaluation of coaching behaviors. Additionally, athletes perceived several specific coaching behaviors more negatively than did the coach, and athletes drastically overestimated their coach’s self-reported pregame cognitive and somatic anxiety and underestimated his self-confidence. Overall, the results suggest that coaches should be more supportive and less negative with high anxious and low self-confident athletes.

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Relationships among Coach Burnout, Coach Behaviors, and Athletes’ Psychological Responses

Melissa S. Price and Maureen R. Weiss

The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship among coach burnout, coaching behaviors, and athletes’ psychological responses using Chelladurai’s (1980, 1990) multidimensional model of leadership as a theoretical framework. Two questions were addressed: (a) Do coaches who vary in level of burnout differ in the behaviors athletes perceive they exhibit? (b) Are coaching behaviors related to athletes’ enjoyment, perceived competence, anxiety, and burnout? A sample of 193 female soccer players and 15 head coaches of high school teams completed measures of the constructs of interest. Coaches higher in emotional exhaustion were perceived by their teams as providing less training and instruction and social support and making fewer autocratic and greater democratic decisions. For the second question, athletes’ perceptions of greater training and instruction, social support, positive feedback, democratic decisions, and less autocratic style were related to more positive (i.e., perceived competence, enjoyment) and less negative (i.e., anxiety, burnout) psychological outcomes.