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Steven C. Barnson

The purpose of this research was to: (a) describe the coaching process using language that is meaningful for practicing coaches; (b) explain how different coaches maneuver through the process of coaching; and (c) probe the paradoxical nature of the coaching process. Data gathered over a 6-month period with eight high school team sport coaches in the United States representing six different sport contexts, revealed three foundational paradoxes. Based on the results, coaching is best viewed as the convergence of three paradoxical forces: the paradox of authenticity, the paradox of purpose, and the pendulum paradox. The paper closes with the suggested definition of sports coaching: Coaching is the process of utilizing an intentional philosophic approach to simultaneously teach, motivate, and organize an athlete to attain higher levels of success over time.

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Pär Rylander

The purpose of the current study was to investigate the relationship between team sport coaches’ power and coaching effectiveness using French and Raven’s (1959) taxonomy of power bases as a theoretical framework. Coaching effectiveness (CE) was conceptualized as an umbrella concept and four different CE outcomes were used; athletes’ satisfaction with the coach, coaches’ general influence, adaptive training behaviours, and collective efficacy. Hypotheses were made on the specific relationships between the individual power bases and the effectiveness criteria. The total sample consisted of 820 athletes (47% females), representing 56 elite and nonelite teams from three team sports (soccer, floorball, and team handball). Data were analysed separately for adults and youths. Structural equations modelling showed that 30% (in the youth sample) and 55% (in the adult sample) of the proposed hypotheses was supported. Overall, coaches’ bases of power were strongly associated with coaching effectiveness, explaining between 13% and 59% of variance in the effectiveness outcomes used. Expert power was consistently positively related to coaching effectiveness; reward and coercive power had mixed relationships (positively, negatively, unrelated) as had legitimate power (negatively, unrelated) and reward power (positively, unrelated). The results are discussed in relation to coaching effectiveness, limitations, practical implications and future research.

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Jean Côté, John Saimela, Pierre Trudel, Abderrahim Baria, and Storm Russell

An expert system approach (Buchanan et al., 1983) was used to identify and conceptualize the knowledge of 17 Canadian expert high-performance gymnastic coaches. The knowledge elicitation process consisted of open-ended questions and various questioning methods to unveil, explore, and prove important information (Patton, 1987; Spradley, 1979) about coaching. All coaches’ interviews were transcribed verbatim, and the unstructured qualitative data were inductively analyzed following the procedures and techniques of grounded theory (Strauss & Corbin, 1990). The inductive analysis process allowed the meaning units of the interview transcripts to be regrouped into properties, categories, and components. The components emerging from the analysis consisted of (a) competition, (b) training, (c) organization, (d) coach’s personal characteristics, (e) gymnast’s personal characteristics and level of development, and (f) contextual factors. These components were further developed into a model representing coaches’ knowledge.

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Tim Fletcher, Ken Lodewyk, Katie Glover, and Sandra Albione

“frequently model practices in the classroom, observe teachers, and engage in supportive, dialogical conversations with them about what they observed” (p. 30). Knight identifies the following features of the instructional coaching model: a. Equality : Instructional coaches and teachers are partners in the

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Bryan A. McCullick, Ashton Dooley, Paul Schempp, and Tiffany Isaac

The last 25 years has seen an enormous increase in the literature regarding coaches and the act of coaching. Perhaps one of the most important contributions to this surge was Côté, Salmela, Trudel, Baria, and Russell’s ( 1995 ) Coaching Model , which posited that the “work” of coaching could be

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Bradley Fawver, Garrett F. Beatty, John T. Roman, and Kevin Kurtz

the current coaching model, and (c) provide insights into ways the U.S. coaching system might be improved to reduce dropout rates and provide optimal experiences and outcomes for athletes. Coach Demographics According to the U.S. Department of Labor, approximately 276,100 coaches were employed in 2016

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Jessyca N. Arthur-Cameselle and Paula A. Quatromoni

The purpose of this study was to identify factors related to the onset of eating disorders in female athletes. Participants were 17 collegiate female athletes (mean age of 20.7) who experienced eating disorders. Participants were interviewed individually and responses were coded thematically. Results revealed internal and external factors related to the onset of eating disorders. Internal factors included: Negative Mood States, Low Self Esteem, Perfectionism/Drive for Achievement, and Desire for Control. External factors included: Negative Influences on Self-Esteem, Hurtful Relationships, Hurtful Role Models, and Sport Performance. Findings suggest that many triggers for onset among athletes are similar to those reported among nonathletes. However, results demonstrate that the sport environment has a unique impact on athletes’ eating disorder development. In particular, negative comments by coaches, modeling of eating disordered behaviors by other athletes, and sport performance pressure all contributed to eating pathology. Implications and recommendations for the sport community are discussed.

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://us.humankinetics.com/collections/psychology-of-sport-and-exercise/products/essential-guide-for-mental-performance-consultants-digital-resource the Christian Paths to Health and Wellness (3rd ed.) by Peter Walters and John Byl. https://us.humankinetics.com/collections/ebooks/products/christian-paths-to-health-and-wellness-3rd-edition-epub-with-web-study-guide Foundations of Professional Coaching: Models, Methods and Core Competencies by

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–28, 2023, Beijing, China The 30th International Congress of Applied Psychology will be held in Beijing, China. For further details: https://www.icap2023.com Books, Websites, Media, New Programs, and Job Opportunities 2022 Human Kinetics Book/Ebook Releases Foundations of Professional Coaching: Models

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://us.humankinetics.com/collections/psychology-of-sport-and-exercise/products/essential-guide-for-mental-performance-consultants-digital-resource-the Christian Paths to Health and Wellness (3rd ed.) by Peter Walters and John Byl. https://us.humankinetics.com/collections/ebooks/products/christian-paths-to-health-and-wellness-3rd-edition-epub-with-web-study-guide Coming Soon: Human Kinetics Book/eBook Releases Foundations of Professional Coaching: Models