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Elisa F. Ogawa, Tongjian You, and Suzanne G. Leveille

This paper provides a systematic review of current research findings using exergaming as a treatment for improving cognition and dual-task function in older adults. A literature search was conducted to collect exergaming intervention studies that were either randomized controlled or uncontrolled studies. Of the seven identified studies (five randomized controlled studies and two uncontrolled studies), three studies focused on cognitive function alone, two studies focused on dual-task function alone, and two studies measured both cognitive function and dual-task function. Current evidence supports that exergaming improves cognitive function and dual-task function, which potentially leads to fall prevention. However, it is unclear whether exergaming, which involves both cognitive input and physical exercise, has additional benefits compared with traditional physical exercise alone. Further studies should include traditional exercise as a control group to identify these potential, additional benefits.

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Charles H. Hillman and John R. Biggan

This manuscript, which arose from the inaugural Tom Rowland Lecture Series at the 2016 North American Society for Pediatric Exercise Medicine conference, provides a brief descriptive review of what is known (i.e., the state of the science) regarding the relation of childhood physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) to brain health, cognition, and academic outcomes. Gaps in the knowledgebase are identified, including characteristics of the PA stimulus that promotes changes in brain and cognition, whether critical periods in development exist in which PA/CRF may have a disproportionately large influence, the understanding of individual difference factors, and the influence upon learning. Lastly, several possible directions for future research are proposed. Although the field of childhood PA, CRF, brain, and cognition is rapidly expanding, there is considerable room for future growth. This manuscript may be helpful in shaping that future growth, with the goal of improving lifelong health and effective functioning.

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Charles H. Hillman, Kirk I. Erickson, and Bradley D. Hatfield

The past two decades have uncovered the beneficial relation of physical activity and other health behaviors on brain and cognition, with the majority of data emerging from older adult populations. More recently, a similar research thread has emerged in school-aged children, which offers insight into the relation of physical activity to scholastic performance, providing a real-world application of the benefits observed in the laboratory. Technological advances have similarly furthered our understanding of physical activity effects on cognitive and brain health. Given this emerging body of work, this manuscript reviews the basic findings within the field, but more importantly suggests triggers or signals from the emerging literature that will shape the field in the near future. The overall goal of this body of research is to increase cognitive and brain health to promote effective functioning of individuals across the lifespan.

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Jennifer L. Etnier and Benjamin A. Sibley

The purpose of this study was to examine the interactive effects of hormone-replacement therapy (HRT) and physical activity (PA) on the cognitive performance of older women. Postmenopausal women (n = 101) were recruited to complete a PA questionnaire, provide demographic information, and perform the digit-symbol substitution task (DSST) and the trail-making tests (TMT). Regression analyses were conducted for participants with complete data for each cognitive test (DSST n = 62; TMT n = 69). For both tasks, results indicated that PA and education were positively related and age was negatively related to cognitive performance. The interaction of HRT with PA did not add to the predicted variance of either measure of cognitive performance. This was true even after limiting the HRT users to women using unopposed estrogen. It is concluded that the beneficial relationship between PA and these two measures of cognitive performance in postmenopausal women exists irrespective of HRT use.

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Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale, and José Rubens Rebelatto

accelerometers between AD and preserved cognition (PC) groups and between AD and MCI groups, without any distinction between PC and MCI groups. TUGT is widely used in clinical practice; however, this test has some limitations, including the analysis of total time and the main focus in time and not in other

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Anna Tirkkonen, Jenni Kulmala, Tuomo Hänninen, Timo Törmäkangas, Anna Stigsdotter Neely, and Sarianna Sipilä

determinants alone ( Grande et al., 2020 ). Poor cognition, especially poor performance in executive functions, that is, higher level functions that allow flexible goal-directed action and problem solving, has been found to be associated with slow gait speed ( Morris, Lord, Bunce, Burn, & Rochester, 2016

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Spencer E. Boyle, Melissa A. Fothergill, John Metcalfe, Sarah Docherty, and Crystal F. Haskell-Ramsay

multicomponent training appeared to affect inhibitory capacity directly, 9 suggesting different mechanisms underlying the effect following different modalities. A comprehensive systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials indicated domain-specific effects on cognition following different

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Alexandro Andrade, Thais Cristina Siqueira, Anderson D’Oliveira, and Fábio Hech Dominski

-care abilities, daily functionality, mood and behavior, episodic memory, global cognition, physical function, QoL, caregiver burden, functional, emotional, social changes, greater behavioral coherence, well-being, language abilities, memory, orientation, depression, anxiety, motor skills, transferring

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher, and Naiman A. Khan

processing speed, 9 and lower gray matter volume. 10 These negative effects appear to selectively impact brain regions important for cognition and learning, including the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex. 11 , 12 Further, obesity-related inflammation, often found in peripheral

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Laura Zlibinaite, Albertas Skurvydas, Sandra Kilikeviciene, and Rima Solianik

months improves cognition—specifically executive function—in overweight children 16 , 17 and obese young adolescents 18 ; moreover, greater cardiorespiratory fitness is associated with better cognition in overweight and obese individuals 19 – 21 and improved cerebral white matter integrity in obese