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Sophie E. Carter, Richard Draijer, Andrew Thompson, Dick H.J. Thijssen, and Nicola D. Hopkins

and light-intensity physical activity (PA) could improve employee health and well-being as well as productivity. 5 However, there is little evidence to support these recommendations. 8 , 9 Cognition is related to work performance due to its influence on workers’ ability to learn and execute the

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes, and Charles Spanbauer

considerable promise as a culturally appropriate form of PA. In addition, it requires individuals to plan, monitor, and execute a sequence of goal-directed complex actions, potentially influencing cognitive function. In a recent review of the influence of exercise programs on cognition, Gregory and colleagues

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Madhura Phansikar and Sean P. Mullen

) and chronic LTPAs ( Weuve et al., 2004 ) have positive effects on cognition among older adults, and potential mechanisms for cognitive benefit range from an increase in cerebral blood flow to changes in brain structure and function ( Gligoroska & Manchevska, 2012 ). Among children, similar acute

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Tracy C. Donachie, Andrew P. Hill, and Daniel J. Madigan

precompetition emotions in junior footballers and whether perfectionistic cognitions mediated this relationship over time. Precompetition Emotions Emotions are a complex combination of psychological, physiological, and behavioral reactions to personally meaningful events ( Lazarus, 1991 ). According to cognitive

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Phillip D. Tomporowski

Physical activity is purported to promote children’s brain health and enhance mental development (1). Three studies were selected for review because of their focus on issues that challenge translational research applications in exercise pediatric science. While some disagreement exists concerning the definition of translational research, most suggest that translational interventions focus on the uptake, implementation, and sustainability of research findings within standard care (2). Translational researchers typically highlight differences that exist between efficacy experiments, which provide evidence that a specific intervention works, and effectiveness experiments, which show that the intervention will reap benefits under real-world conditions. Results obtained from laboratory-based efficacy studies that have examined the relation between exercise and cognition led researchers (3,4) and policy makers to consider the importance of physical activity in school settings. Large-scale studies that assess the impact of various types of school based physical activity intervention on children’s cognitive and academic performance have begun. The initial results have been uneven and suggestive of a lack of benefit for children in authentic school settings. Before drawing such conclusions, however, it will be important for researchers and practitioners to recognize the methodological and measurement issues that challenge attempts to employ laboratory methodologies to academic settings.

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Irene Torres-Sánchez, Araceli Ortiz-Rubio, Irene Cabrera-Martos, María Granados-Santiago, Isabel López-Torres, and Marie Carmen Valenza

years, cognitive function and its impairment have reached clinical relevance in this group of patients. 9 – 12 It has been shown that exercise can positively impact cognition in COPD patients, but current evidence is limited. 10 Nonetheless, Spirduso 13 reported that active older adults had

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Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Chloe Andre, and Rebecca M.C. Spencer

. Early childhood school readiness and cognition, referred to here as academic-related factors, are associated with long-term health and social well-being. For example, early childhood (ie, 2–6 y) school readiness influences how children perform and progress in school 4 , 5 and cognitive functions are

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David J. Langley

The purpose of this study was to describe and interpret student perspectives and thoughts associated with the teaching/learning process. Twenty university students enrolled in a 10-week Bowling I course and their instructor served as participants. Four qualitative sources of data were collected involving student perspectives and thoughts. A core category derived from the qualitative analysis indicated that student perspectives and thoughts centered on errors in task performance. A systematic approach outlined the properties, causes, intervening conditions, strategies, and consequences of strategies associated with this core category. The results are interpreted within a theory of situated cognition, emphasizing student perspectives as embedded within multiple contexts found in the social setting.

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Silvia Varela, José M. Cancela, Manuel Seijo-Martinez, and Carlos Ayán

finished the intervention. The comparison between the initial and final results obtained after the administration of the tests indicated that self-paced cycling had a significant impact on the participants’ global cognition and attention, visual scanning, and processing speed. The ANOVA showed that self

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Tanya R. Berry, Wendy M. Rodgers, David Markland, and Craig R. Hall

Investigating implicit–explicit concordance can aid in understanding underlying mechanisms and possible intervention effects. This research examined the concordance between implicit associations of exercise with health or appearance and related explicit motives. Variables considered as possible moderators were behavioral regulations, explicit attitudes, and social desirability. Participants (N = 454) completed measures of implicit associations of exercise with health and appearance and questionnaire measures of health and appearance motives, attitudes, social desirability, and behavioral regulations. Attitudes significantly moderated the relationship between implicit associations of exercise with health and health motives. Identified regulations significantly moderated implicit–explicit concordance with respect to associations with appearance. These results suggest that implicit and explicit exercise-related cognitions are not necessarily independent and their relationship to each other may be moderated by attitudes or some forms of behavioral regulation. Future research that takes a dual-processing approach to exercise behavior should consider potential theoretical moderators of concordance.