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Jules Woolf and Jess C. Dixon

about stimuli they encounter on a daily basis. Although rapid cognition in the form of heuristics may offer beneficial and efficient shortcuts to decision making, when manifested as cognitive biases, they can interfere with our ability to make quality decisions ( Hammond, Keeney, & Raiffa, 1998 ). All

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Yonghwan Chang

events ( Ein-Gar et al., 2012 ). Moreover, negative emotional events might have an advantage in the process of recollection due to the combined effects of valence and arousal ( Kensinger & Corkin, 2003 ). However, more recent memory and cognitive bias studies have indicated that negative information

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Jonathan M. Casper and Jung-Hwan Jeon

behavior (e.g., frequent involvement). The third level, Attachment, reflects greater personal meaning and self-concept and participants place greater emotional, functional, and symbolic meaning to the sport. The highest level, Allegiance, is characterized by participants having greater cognitive bias

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Timothy Martinson, Stephen A. Butterfield, Craig A. Mason, Shihfen Tu, Robert A. Lehnhard and Christopher J. Nightingale

L . An examination of learned helplessness among attention-deficit hyperactivity disordered boys . In: B Hoza , WE Pelham , chairs. Cognitive biases as mediators of childhood disorders: What do we know?    Paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the Association for the Advancement of

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Sada Reed and Guy Harrison

practitioners criticize journalists’ source selection, contending that journalists’ perceived credibility of a source is based on cognitive bias and familiarity ( Reich, 2010 ). Or, according to Altheide ( 1978 ), source selection is based on “style and presentation rather than truthful information which gives

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Florian Müller, Jonathan F. Best and Rouwen Cañal-Bruland

, height estimates are subject to social-cognitive biases. For example, Dannenmaier and Thumin ( 1964 ), as well as Wilson ( 1968 ), showed that subjective judgments of other people’s height are influenced by their reputation. Similar effects have been reported in sports such as soccer, where goalkeepers

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Emily Kroshus, Sara P.D. Chrisman, Jeffrey J. Milroy and Christine M. Baugh

; Kroshus, Baugh, et al., 2014 ), may be a relatively fruitless activity. The cognitive bias of motivated reasoning describes how individuals may make unintentionally incorrect attributions for their behavior for ego-protective reasons or to reduce dissonance between the behavior and their thoughts about

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Andreas Heissel, Anou Pietrek, Michael A. Rapp, Stephan Heinzel and Geoffrey Williams

relatedness perceive less need support from their exercise professional. It is conceivable that people who feel frustrated in their need for relatedness have a negative cognitive bias and are heavily reachable via social support, in that they do not recognize the provided need support (selective attention

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Emmanuel Ducrocq, Mark Wilson, Tim J. Smith and Nazanin Derakshan

thought category among elite performers in high-pressure sporting contexts ( Oudejans, Kuijpers, Kooijman, & Bakker, 2011 ), future research should investigate the potential efficacy of cognitive training methods specifically designed to target sports-related negative thinking and cognitive biases. Such

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Esmie P. Smith, Andrew P. Hill and Howard K. Hall

, Beck and Bredemeier ( 2016 ) integrate clinical, cognitive, neurobiological and evolutionary perspectives. In this model, negative cognitive biases and stress reactivity provide the basis for negative beliefs regarding the self (e.g., “I’m worthless”), the world (e.g., “nobody values me”) and the