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Thomas Finkenzeller, Sabine Würth, Michael Doppelmayr and Günter Amesberger

) after moderate exercise compared with rest ( O’Leary, Pontifex, Scudder, Brown, & Hillman, 2011 ). The dynamics of cognitive control during a 60-min continuous physical load was investigated in a recent study ( Tempest, Davranche, Brisswalter, Perrey, & Radel, 2017 ), indicating a continuous decrease in

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Margina Ruiter, Charly Eielts, Sofie Loyens and Fred Paas

. Physical activity, both acute and chronic, has been associated not only with improved health but also with positive effects on cognition in children. 18 , 22 – 26 One such aspect of cognition that has received much attention in recent years is cognitive control, which has been found to be positively

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Karen Davranche, Ben Hall and Terry McMorris

This study aimed to determine how cognitive control, engaged in a task requiring selective inhibition, is affected by acute steady-state exercise. An adapted version of the Eriksen flanker task, involving three types of trials that varied according to their level of congruency (congruent trials, stimulus-incongruent trials, and response-incongruent trials) was performed during 2 periods of 20-min cycling at a carefully controlled intensity (50% of maximal aerobic power). The results indicated that moderate exercise improves reaction time (RT) performance on the Eriksen flanker task. This facilitating effect appeared to be neither dependent on the nature of the interference (stimulus level conflict vs. response level conflict) nor on the amount of cognitive control engaged in the task (congruent vs. incongruent trials). Distributional RT analyses did not highlight any sign of impairment in the efficiency of cognitive control.

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Lauren B. Raine, Mark R. Scudder, Brian J. Saliba, Arthur F. Kramer and Charles Hillman

Background:

There is a growing trend of inactivity among children, which may not only result in poorer physical health but also poorer cognitive health. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between aerobic fitness and proactive and reactive cognitive control using a continuous performance task (CPT).

Methods:

Forty-eight 9- to 10-year-old children (n = 24 higher fit [HF] and n = 24 lower fit [LF]) performed an AX-CPT requiring them to respond to target cue-probe pairs (AX) or nontarget pairs (AY, BX, BY) under 2 different trial duration conditions, which modulated working memory demands.

Results:

Across trials and conditions, HF children had greater accuracy than LF children. For target trials, the long duration resulted in lower accuracy than the short duration. For nontarget trials, an interaction of duration and trial was observed, indicating that the long duration resulted in decreased BX and BY accuracy relative to the short duration. AY trials had greater accuracy during the long duration compared with the short duration.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that fitness may modulate cognitive control strategies during tasks requiring context updating and maintenance, key components of working memory and further support aerobic fitness as a marker of cognitive and brain health in children.

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Senne Braem, Stephanie Supply, Sanne P. Roels and Wim Notebaert

Most cognitive control effects, although numerously reported in computer task studies, have rarely been tested outside the laboratory. The purpose of this study was twofold. First, we aimed to improve the ecological validity of a well-studied congruency effect. The Simon effect (Simon, 1969) is the observation that an irrelevant stimulus location can facilitate or impede task performance when it is congruent or incongruent with the response location. Secondly, we wanted to investigate the role of action experience on the Simon effect. In this study, experienced bowlers were asked to hit either the left- or rightmost pin, depending on the pitch of a tone. Irrelevant to the task, this tone could be presented in the congruent or incongruent ear. Our results demonstrate that the Simon effect can be observed outside the laboratory and that weekly training at bowling may help in shielding against irrelevant location stimuli.

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Keita Kamijo and Yuji Takeda

The relationship of physical activity to trial-by-trial adjustments of response conflict was assessed using behavioral task performance, the N2 event-related brain potential component, and phase-locking values (PLVs) in a lower gamma band during a perceptual conflict task. Nineteen physically active and 19 inactive young adults (mean age = 21.3 years) performed a Navon task, using a global letter made up of local letters of either the same kind (congruent trials) or a different kind (incongruent trials). Findings revealed that active individuals exhibited smaller N2 amplitudes and greater PLVs on incongruent trials that were preceded by incongruent trials compared with those preceded by congruent trials. Such phenomena were not observed for inactive individuals. These results suggest that greater physical activity is associated with larger trial-bytrial adjustments of response conflict, which we attribute to upregulation of top-down cognitive control and reductions in response conflict.

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Manuel E. Hernandez, Erin O’Donnell, Gioella Chaparro, Roee Holtzer, Meltem Izzetoglu, Brian M. Sandroff and Robert W. Motl

walking and talking, the PFC plays an increasingly important role in the cognitive control of gait in middle-aged to older persons with MS ( Chaparro et al., 2017 ; Hernandez et al., 2016 ). However, it is unclear how the recruitment of the PFC during the performance of a concurrent cognitive task is

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Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Alan L. Smith and Matthew B. Pontifex

otherwise acting in self-defeating ways ( Twenge, Catanese, & Baumeister, 2002 ). Baddeley and Hitch’s ( 1974 ) conceptual model posits that working memory is of limited capacity. Events that capture and direct attention require cognitive control systems (i.e., the central executive) in working memory to

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Denver M.Y. Brown and Steven R. Bray

-term gratification involves engaging cognitive control, a central component of self-control, which allows us to consciously alter our responses to align with goals and norms ( Inzlicht, Bartholow, & Hirsh, 2015 ). Cognitive control is important for many tasks of daily living as well as an instrumental aspect of

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Nicholas W. Baumgartner, Anne M. Walk, Caitlyn G. Edwards, Alicia R. Covello, Morgan R. Chojnacki, Ginger E. Reeser, Andrew M. Taylor, Hannah D. Holscher and Naiman A. Khan

rodent studies demonstrating that physical activity is directly related to improvements in learning and memory that are underpinned by neurogenesis and neurotrophic growth factors. 15 , 16 Cognitive control (also known as executive function) may be of particular importance to this area because it