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Julia Dillmann, Christian-Dominik Peterlein, and Gudrun Schwarzer

It was the aim of this study to examine the motor and cognitive development of infants with congenital idiopathic clubfoot, compared with typically developing infants. We repeatedly tested the gross motor, fine motor, and cognitive abilities of 12 infants with clubfoot and 12 typically developing infants at the ages of 4, 6, 9, and 12 months with the Bayley-III Scales. All infants with clubfoot were treated with the Ponseti method, which led to a restriction of normal movements of the lower extremities in the first months of life. They showed a great delay in gross motor development but not in fine motor or cognitive development. However, in the clubfoot group, we found some slight deficits in specific cognitive tasks, including problem solving and spatial memory. In addition, our results revealed significant correlations between gross and fine motor performance and cognitive performance in the control group but only between fine motor and cognitive performance in infants with clubfoot, indicating that both, fine and gross motor skills, are related to cognitive processes and can mutually replace each other to a certain degree. Further research is needed to gain a deeper understanding of clubfoot infants’ development and to clarify the need for mobility training.

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David W. Rainey, Nicholas R. Santilli, and Kevin Fallon

This study examined baseball players' conceptions of umpires' authority. Eighty male players, ages 6-22 years, completed an abbreviated Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks (Furth, 1970), which was used to measure cognitive development. They then heard recorded scenarios describing conflicts with an umpire and a parent. Players indicated if they would argue with the authorities, why they obey the authorities (obedience), and why the authorities get to make decisions (legitimacy). Obedience and legitimacy responses were categorized into Damon's (1977) three levels. Measures of arguing, obedience, and legitimacy were analyzed for four age levels and three levels of cognitive development. Older and more cognitively developed players were more likely to argue with authorities. Conceptions of obedience and legitimacy were positively associated with age, though they were not related to scores of cognitive development. The positive relationship between age and authority conceptions and the absence of a relationship between cognitive development and authority conceptions are both consistent with Damon's position.

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Paul M. Wright, Lauriece L. Zittel, Tawanda Gipson, and Crystal Williams

be considered to predict student success in elementary school ( Davies, Janus, Duku, & Gaskin, 2016 ; Heroman, Burts, Berke & Bickart, 2010 ). For example, in a recent study of 45,000 children, it was demonstrated that cognitive development in kindergarten was one of the strongest predictors of

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Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton, and Jessica A. Sommerville

investigating infants’ social cognitive development ( Lucca, Horton, & Sommerville, n.d. ). We received institutional approval to conduct this research, and the informed consent was provided by infants’ caregivers to participate in this study and have their images shared. 2. A “peak” in raw data can be

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Mary D. Fry

Using Nicholls’ developmental component as a framework, the purpose of this study was to examine children’s understanding of luck and ability in the physical domain. Children (N = 144, 8 boys and 8 girls at each age from 5 to 13 years) enrolled in public schools participated individually in a 30-min session in which they were shown 2 similar games; one required luck and the other required skill to perform successfully. Participants received an explanation of the games and were told of youngsters who had tried unsuccessfully to play them. Participants were interviewed, and their responses were analyzed via a Piagetian structural developmental method. Results revealed that the 4 levels of understanding of luck and ability Nicholls and Miller (1985) described were relevant to the physical domain. Furthermore, the Spearman rho coefficient indicated a strong positive relationship between children’s age and their level of understanding of luck and ability.

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Michaela B. Upshaw and Jessica Sommerville

Previous research demonstrates that infants adapt and plan their actions based on object weight, but fewer studies have investigated how infants’ understanding of object weight shapes their understanding of physical events. The present study investigates 10-month-old infants’ understanding of the effect of object weight in support events—specifically, that object weight impacts whether a supporting surface will become compressed or not—and its relation to motor development. In Experiment 1, using an action task, we found that infants infer an object’s weight based on whether it compresses a supporting surface, as demonstrated by reaches to the light object following the support event. In Experiment 2, using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we found that infants generate predictions for the outcome of support events involving heavy and light objects (i.e., they expect heavy, but not light, objects to compress a supporting surface), as demonstrated by longer looking to inconsistent events relative to consistent. Neither experiment found relations with infants’ motor development. These findings demonstrate that infants invoke a concept of object weight when interpreting and predicting the outcomes of physical events and that the ability to reason about object weight as a causal factor in physical events is relatively sophisticated in infancy.

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Daniel L. Springer, Arden J. Anderson, Stuart M. Dixon, Stacy M. Warner, and Marlene A. Dixon

Sport management scholars have called for educators and students to increase their global perspectives to better reflect the globalization of the industry. Short-term study abroad trips represent an alternative to long-term study abroad trips and help address financial and temporal barriers associated with longer trips. Based on a holistic model of study abroad, the current study examined the associated outcomes of an intentional pretrip and in-trip design for sport management undergraduate students in a short-term study abroad program. Utilizing a mixed-methods design, the researchers asked students on a short-term trip to complete journals and an online survey regarding their cognitive, interpersonal, and intrapersonal outcomes and corresponding experiences. Results indicate that students demonstrated learning in all three areas and highlight the importance for educators to identify opportunities to assist students in making meaning of their experiences and the corresponding lessons associated with those experiences. These findings provide guidance for educators on how intentionally planning pretrip and in-trip lessons can enhance holistic learning for short-term study abroad students.

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Christine W. St. Laurent, Sarah Burkart, Chloe Andre, and Rebecca M.C. Spencer

Early childhood is as an important phase for brain and cognitive development. The early years of life are marked by increased neuroplasticity of the brain and enhancements in cognitive processing and abilities. This age also marks a critical period in the development of school readiness skills and

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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

rapid physical and cognitive development, and this is the time period during which a child’s habits are formed and family lifestyle routines are open to changes and adaptations. The importance of interactions among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adequate sleep time on physical and mental

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Damien McKay, Carolyn Broderick, and Katharine Steinbeck

With the advent of long-term athlete development programs and early sport specialization, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development. This article aims to challenge the assumption of adolescence as a time of increased vigor alone, by highlighting the presence of specific vulnerabilities, and proposing that the hormonal, musculoskeletal, and neurocognitive changes of adolescence may represent intrinsic risk factors for sport related injury.