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Julia Dillmann, Christian-Dominik Peterlein and Gudrun Schwarzer

It was the aim of this study to examine the motor and cognitive development of infants with congenital idiopathic clubfoot, compared with typically developing infants. We repeatedly tested the gross motor, fine motor, and cognitive abilities of 12 infants with clubfoot and 12 typically developing infants at the ages of 4, 6, 9, and 12 months with the Bayley-III Scales. All infants with clubfoot were treated with the Ponseti method, which led to a restriction of normal movements of the lower extremities in the first months of life. They showed a great delay in gross motor development but not in fine motor or cognitive development. However, in the clubfoot group, we found some slight deficits in specific cognitive tasks, including problem solving and spatial memory. In addition, our results revealed significant correlations between gross and fine motor performance and cognitive performance in the control group but only between fine motor and cognitive performance in infants with clubfoot, indicating that both, fine and gross motor skills, are related to cognitive processes and can mutually replace each other to a certain degree. Further research is needed to gain a deeper understanding of clubfoot infants’ development and to clarify the need for mobility training.

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David W. Rainey, Nicholas R. Santilli and Kevin Fallon

This study examined baseball players' conceptions of umpires' authority. Eighty male players, ages 6-22 years, completed an abbreviated Inventory of Piaget's Developmental Tasks (Furth, 1970), which was used to measure cognitive development. They then heard recorded scenarios describing conflicts with an umpire and a parent. Players indicated if they would argue with the authorities, why they obey the authorities (obedience), and why the authorities get to make decisions (legitimacy). Obedience and legitimacy responses were categorized into Damon's (1977) three levels. Measures of arguing, obedience, and legitimacy were analyzed for four age levels and three levels of cognitive development. Older and more cognitively developed players were more likely to argue with authorities. Conceptions of obedience and legitimacy were positively associated with age, though they were not related to scores of cognitive development. The positive relationship between age and authority conceptions and the absence of a relationship between cognitive development and authority conceptions are both consistent with Damon's position.

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Paul M. Wright, Lauriece L. Zittel, Tawanda Gipson and Crystal Williams

be considered to predict student success in elementary school ( Davies, Janus, Duku, & Gaskin, 2016 ; Heroman, Burts, Berke & Bickart, 2010 ). For example, in a recent study of 45,000 children, it was demonstrated that cognitive development in kindergarten was one of the strongest predictors of

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Kelsey Lucca, David Gire, Rachel Horton and Jessica A. Sommerville

investigating infants’ social cognitive development ( Lucca, Horton, & Sommerville, n.d. ). We received institutional approval to conduct this research, and the informed consent was provided by infants’ caregivers to participate in this study and have their images shared. 2. A “peak” in raw data can be

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Mary D. Fry

Using Nicholls’ developmental component as a framework, the purpose of this study was to examine children’s understanding of luck and ability in the physical domain. Children (N = 144, 8 boys and 8 girls at each age from 5 to 13 years) enrolled in public schools participated individually in a 30-min session in which they were shown 2 similar games; one required luck and the other required skill to perform successfully. Participants received an explanation of the games and were told of youngsters who had tried unsuccessfully to play them. Participants were interviewed, and their responses were analyzed via a Piagetian structural developmental method. Results revealed that the 4 levels of understanding of luck and ability Nicholls and Miller (1985) described were relevant to the physical domain. Furthermore, the Spearman rho coefficient indicated a strong positive relationship between children’s age and their level of understanding of luck and ability.

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Michaela B. Upshaw and Jessica Sommerville

Previous research demonstrates that infants adapt and plan their actions based on object weight, but fewer studies have investigated how infants’ understanding of object weight shapes their understanding of physical events. The present study investigates 10-month-old infants’ understanding of the effect of object weight in support events—specifically, that object weight impacts whether a supporting surface will become compressed or not—and its relation to motor development. In Experiment 1, using an action task, we found that infants infer an object’s weight based on whether it compresses a supporting surface, as demonstrated by reaches to the light object following the support event. In Experiment 2, using a violation-of-expectation paradigm, we found that infants generate predictions for the outcome of support events involving heavy and light objects (i.e., they expect heavy, but not light, objects to compress a supporting surface), as demonstrated by longer looking to inconsistent events relative to consistent. Neither experiment found relations with infants’ motor development. These findings demonstrate that infants invoke a concept of object weight when interpreting and predicting the outcomes of physical events and that the ability to reason about object weight as a causal factor in physical events is relatively sophisticated in infancy.

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Juana Willumsen and Fiona Bull

rapid physical and cognitive development, and this is the time period during which a child’s habits are formed and family lifestyle routines are open to changes and adaptations. The importance of interactions among physical activity, sedentary behavior, and adequate sleep time on physical and mental

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Damien McKay, Carolyn Broderick and Katharine Steinbeck

With the advent of long-term athlete development programs and early sport specialization, the training of elite athletes now spans the period of adolescence. Adolescence represents a period of physical, psychosocial and cognitive development, but also a time of physical and psychological vulnerability. Changes in skeletal and physiological attributes coincide with an increased risk of sport related injury. A window of vulnerability is shaped by the properties of the musculoskeletal system, the influence of pubertal hormones and the lag time between physical and cognitive development. This article aims to challenge the assumption of adolescence as a time of increased vigor alone, by highlighting the presence of specific vulnerabilities, and proposing that the hormonal, musculoskeletal, and neurocognitive changes of adolescence may represent intrinsic risk factors for sport related injury.

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A.E. Wall, M. Bouffard, J. McClements, H. Findlay and M.J. Taylor

Our major purpose is to develop a more holistic model of the development of skilled action that can guide our research and practical efforts to help physically awkward persons enjoy the benefits of physical activity. Based on recent research in the areas of cognitive science and cognitive development, we suggest that motor development can be viewed as the acquisition of three major types of knowledge about action: procedural, declarative, and affective. A brief discussion of how each type of knowledge about action might develop is presented. The final section examines the complementary role of knowledge and consciousness in the acquisition of skilled action and the implications of the model for physically awkward children.

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Deborah R. Shapiro and Gail M. Dummer

The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between perceived and actual basketball competence for 25 adolescent males, ages 12 to 15, with mild mental retardation. Participants completed a Pictorial Scale of Perceived Basketball Competence and a modified version of the AAHPER Basketball Skills Test for Boys. Consistent with Harter’s (1978) theory of perceived competence, a positive relationship was found between perceived and actual basketball competence for the individual skills of push pass for accuracy (r s = .38, p = .03), jump and reach (r s = .42, p = .02), speed dribble (r s = .21, p = .16), and free-throw shooting (r s = .37, p = .03), and for the combined battery of four skills (r s = .46, p = .01). Issues relating to cognitive development of participants, testing methodology, statistical analysis techniques, and task characteristics serve as possible explanations for the results of this investigation.