speculative. While performing cognitive dual-task during walking, varying cohorts differently prioritize either the maintenance of gait performance over the cognitive task performance or vice versa ( Bloem, Grimbergen, van Dijk, & Munneke, 2006 ; Doumas, Smolders, & Krampe, 2008 ; Rapp, Krampe, & Baltes
Daniel Hamacher, Dennis Hamacher, Roy Müller, Lutz Schega and Astrid Zech
Dennis Hamacher, Daniel Hamacher, Kathrin Rehfeld, Anita Hökelmann and Lutz Schega
Dancing is a complex sensorimotor activity involving physical and mental elements which have positive effects on cognitive functions and motor control. The present randomized controlled trial aims to analyze the effects of a dancing program on the performance on a motorcognitive dual task. Data of 35 older adults, who were assigned to a dancing group or a health-related exercise group, are presented in the study. In pretest and posttest, we assessed cognitive performance and variability of minimum foot clearance, stride time, and stride length while walking. Regarding the cognitive performance and the stride-to-stride variability of minimum foot clearance, interaction effects have been found, indicating that dancing lowers gait variability to a higher extent than conventional health-related exercise. The data show that dancing improves minimum foot clearance variability and cognitive performance in a dual-task situation. Multi-task exercises (like dancing) might be a powerful tool to improve motor-cognitive dual-task performance.
Erin Smith, Tara Cusack, Caitriona Cunningham and Catherine Blake
effect of dual tasks on the gait speed of healthy older adults with a self-selected walking speed of 1.0 m/s or greater, and found a significant reduction in speed when faced with a cognitive dual task while walking ( Smith, Cusack, & Blake, 2016 ). The analysis also supported previous research that
Renee Beach Sample, Kurt Jackson, Allison L. Kinney, Wiebke S. Diestelkamp, Senia Smoot Reinert and Kimberly Edginton Bigelow
Falls occur in 33% of older adults each year, some leading to moderate to severe injuries. To reduce falls and fall-related injuries, it is important to identify individuals with subtle risk factors elevating their likelihood of falling. The objective of this study was to determine how postural sway measures differed between fallers and nonfallers under standard and dual-task conditions. Quietstanding posturography measures were collected from 150 older adults during standard, cognitive, manual, and cognitive+manual tasks, and analyzed through traditional and nonlinear analyses. Of the traditional measures, M/L sway range and 95% confidence ellipse sway area showed statistically significant differences in all 4 test conditions between fallers and nonfallers. Although the manual dual task showed the most stable balance, effect sizes demonstrated larger differences between fallers and nonfallers. Nonlinear analysis revealed M/L sample entropy and M/L α-scaling exponent differentiating between fallers and nonfallers, with the cognitive task demonstrating larger differences. Based on the results, it is recommended to: (1) apply M/L sway range and 95% confidence ellipse area, (2) use the manual task to differentiate between fallers and nonfallers when using traditional analyses, and (3) use the cognitive task and M/L alpha and M/L sample entropy when using nonlinear analyses.
Cui Zhang, Qipeng Song, Wei Sun and Yu Liu
al., 2010 ; Friedland, Brunton, & Potts, 2014 ) or death ( De Lima et al., 2010 ), future studies should be expanded to include both genders and adults with a wide age range. Second, our cognitive dual task has a simple design configuration and may not have provided sufficient difficulty in generating
Lauren A. Brown, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, Kirtida Patel, Thomas A. Buckley, David R. Howell and Srikant Vallabhajosula
GF , Rikkert MGO . The effect of cognitive dual tasks on balance during walking in physically fit elderly people . Arch Phys Med Rehabil . 2007 ; 88 : 187 – 191 . PubMed ID: 17270516 doi: 10.1016/j.apmr.2006.10.031 35. Verghese J , Kuslansky G , Holtzer R , et al . Walking while
Matthieu M. de Wit, Rich S.W. Masters and John van der Kamp
Based upon evidence that vision for action has quicker access to visual information than vision for perception, we hypothesized that the two systems may have differentiated visual thresholds. There is also evidence that, unlike vision for perception, vision for action is insensitive to cognitive dual-task interference. Using visual masking, we determined the visual thresholds of 15 participants in a perception task, an action task and an action plus concurrent cognitive secondary task. There was no difference in threshold between the perception task and the action task, but the action plus concurrent secondary task was accompanied by a greater visual threshold than both the perception task and the action task alone, indicating dual-task interference. The action task was thus most likely informed by vision for perception. The implications of these results are reviewed in the context of recent discussions of the two visual systems model.
Madeleine E. Hackney, Courtney D. Hall, Katharina V. Echt and Steven L. Wolf
Evidence-based recommendations for interventions to reduce fall risk in older adults with visual impairment are lacking. Adapted tango dance (Tango) and a balance and mobility program (FallProof) have improved mobility, balance, and quality of life (QOL) in individuals with movement impairment. This study compared the efficacy of Tango and FallProof for 32 individuals with visual impairment (age: M = 79.3, SD =11 [51–95 years]). Participants were assigned to Tango or FallProof to complete twenty, 90-min lessons within 12 weeks. Participants underwent assessment of balance, dual-tasking, endurance, gait, and vision-related QOL. The balance reactions of participants in both groups improved (p < .001). Endurance, cognitive dual-tasking, and vision-related QOL may have improved more for Tango than FallProof. Group differences and gains were maintained across time. Both programs could be effective options for motor rehabilitation for older adults with visual impairment because they may improve mobility and QOL while reducing fall risk.
Ian McGinnis, Justin Cobb, Ryan Tierney and Anne Russ
objects, juggling, n/a Head movement direction Still, yaw, pitch, roll, n/a Whole-body movement direction Anterior-posterior, medial-lateral, multi-directional Visual input Eyes closed, eyes open, complex patterns, n/a Cognitive dual task Yes, no Special circumstances Specific parameters for exercises (e
Michiel Punt, Sjoerd M. Bruijn, Ingrid G. van de Port, Ilona J.M. de Rooij, Harriet Wittink and Jaap H. van Dieën
, after several training sessions, participants received an additional task, a visual Stroop task together with the gait perturbations. This Stroop task functioned as a cognitive dual task, which made the training session more challenging and was aimed at establishing a more automated response after gait