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Hanan Khalil, Mahmoud A. Alomari, Omar Khabour, Aya Al-Hieshan and Jawad A. Bajwa

intensities can improve executive function in people with PD ( Murray, Sacheli, Eng, & Stoessl, 2014 ). The exact mechanisms for the exercise-induced improvements in cognitive function in people with PD are still equivocal. However, studies in individuals with and without neurological disorders suggest that

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Kate Riegle van West, Cathy Stinear and Ralph Buck

, 2015 ). The aim of this study was to determine if a novel intervention, poi, has a beneficial effect on physical and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Poi is a ball on a string, which is swung in circular patterns around the body. There are many different styles of poi, the earliest known

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Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu and Yu-Kai Chang

Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated significant positive effects of acute exercise on cognitive function ( Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012 ; Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010 ; McMorris & Hale, 2015 ). However, the effects reported to describe the association between

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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Anthony Papathomas, Jonathan Foster, Eleanor Quested and Nikos Ntoumanis

, evidence is also accumulating showing that physical activity, which includes structured exercise, can improve cognitive functioning and reduce the incidence of dementia ( Ahlskog, Geda, Graff-Radford, & Petersen, 2011 ). A meta-analytic review of 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy (i

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Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo and Xavier García-Massó

, Cinar, Majnemer, & Gagnon, 2017 ). Balance and the cognitive function (e.g., working memory) can potentially influence each other ( Huang & Mercer, 2001 ). Studies conducted on the relationship between motor performance and working memory require individuals to perform both tasks simultaneously ( dual

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

necessary, as it has been observed that exercise has a selective protective effect on the cognitive function of middle-aged women. 3 However, research on the relationship between physical exercise training and cognitive function in healthy adult people remains scarce, particularly in women, who have been

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Freja Gheysen, Karel Herman and Delfien Van Dyck

the functioning of older adults may moderate the relation between neighborhood environment and their PA levels. Apart from their physical functioning, older adults’ health status (i.e., biological, individual-level determinant of PA) is also determined by their cognitive functioning. The normal

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

( Marshall et al., 2011 ). Impairment of instrumental activities of daily living leads to early loss of social engagement and independence. Thus, improvement of muscle strength through the kayak paddling movement might help maintain or improve cognitive function and quality of life. Kayaking has the

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Jacqueline M. Del Giorno, Eric E. Hall, Kevin C. O’Leary, Walter R. Bixby and Paul C. Miller

The purpose of this study was to test the transient hypofrontality theory (Dietrich, 2003) by examining the influence of exercise intensity on executive control processes during and following submaximal exercise. Thirty participants (13 female) exercised for 30 min at ventilatory threshold (VT) or at 75% of VT. The Contingent Continuous Performance Task (CPT) and Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) were used as measures of executive control. They were administered before, during, immediately following, and 20 min after exercise. An increase in false alarms and unique errors (p ≤ .05) occurred during both conditions. False alarms for the CPT and total and perseverative errors for the WCST remained elevated immediately following exercise at VT, but not at exercise below VT (p ≤ .01). The decreased executive control function during exercise can be explained by the transient hypofrontality theory. Following VT, executive control performance remained poor possibly owing to an additional amount of time the brain needs to return to homeostasis following intense exercise.

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Christine B. Phillips, Jerri D. Edwards, Ross Andel and Marcus Kilpatrick

Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants’ daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0–24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults’ ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.