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Timo Suutama and Isto Ruoppila

Two follow-up studies were designed to analyze die cross-seciional and longitudinal associations between cognitive functioning and physical activity among two cohorts of elderly people. At baseline, over 90% of the 75- and 80-year-old populations were interviewed at home and almost 80% participated in the laboratory examinations. Cognitive functioning was assessed by psychometric tests and reaction time tasks, and physical activity was assessed by a subjective self-assessment as well as by objectively measured maximal walking speed. Among both cohorts, the decline over the 5-year period in cognitive functioning as well as in physical activity was generally small but statistically significant. The test-retest correlations were higher for the cognitive functioning scores than for the physical activity variables. The associations between cognitive functioning and physical activity were inconsistent and showed some differences between men and women.

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Kate Riegle van West, Cathy Stinear and Ralph Buck

, 2015 ). The aim of this study was to determine if a novel intervention, poi, has a beneficial effect on physical and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Poi is a ball on a string, which is swung in circular patterns around the body. There are many different styles of poi, the earliest known

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Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu and Yu-Kai Chang

Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated significant positive effects of acute exercise on cognitive function ( Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012 ; Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010 ; McMorris & Hale, 2015 ). However, the effects reported to describe the association between

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela and José María Cancela

necessary, as it has been observed that exercise has a selective protective effect on the cognitive function of middle-aged women. 3 However, research on the relationship between physical exercise training and cognitive function in healthy adult people remains scarce, particularly in women, who have been

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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Anthony Papathomas, Jonathan Foster, Eleanor Quested and Nikos Ntoumanis

, evidence is also accumulating showing that physical activity, which includes structured exercise, can improve cognitive functioning and reduce the incidence of dementia ( Ahlskog, Geda, Graff-Radford, & Petersen, 2011 ). A meta-analytic review of 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy (i

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Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo and Xavier García-Massó

, Cinar, Majnemer, & Gagnon, 2017 ). Balance and the cognitive function (e.g., working memory) can potentially influence each other ( Huang & Mercer, 2001 ). Studies conducted on the relationship between motor performance and working memory require individuals to perform both tasks simultaneously ( dual

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Freja Gheysen, Karel Herman and Delfien Van Dyck

the functioning of older adults may moderate the relation between neighborhood environment and their PA levels. Apart from their physical functioning, older adults’ health status (i.e., biological, individual-level determinant of PA) is also determined by their cognitive functioning. The normal

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

( Marshall et al., 2011 ). Impairment of instrumental activities of daily living leads to early loss of social engagement and independence. Thus, improvement of muscle strength through the kayak paddling movement might help maintain or improve cognitive function and quality of life. Kayaking has the

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Hanan Khalil, Mahmoud A. Alomari, Omar Khabour, Aya Al-Hieshan and Jawad A. Bajwa

intensities can improve executive function in people with PD ( Murray, Sacheli, Eng, & Stoessl, 2014 ). The exact mechanisms for the exercise-induced improvements in cognitive function in people with PD are still equivocal. However, studies in individuals with and without neurological disorders suggest that

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Christine B. Phillips, Jerri D. Edwards, Ross Andel and Marcus Kilpatrick

Physical activity (PA) is believed to preserve cognitive function in older adulthood, though little is known about these relationships within the context of daily life. The present microlongitudinal pilot study explored within- and between-person relationships between daily PA and cognitive function and also examined within-person effect sizes in a sample of community-dwelling older adults. Fifty-one healthy participants (mean age = 70.1 years) wore an accelerometer and completed a cognitive assessment battery for five days. There were no significant associations between cognitive task performance and participants’ daily or average PA over the study period. Effect size estimates indicated that PA explained 0–24% of within-person variability in cognitive function, depending on cognitive task and PA dose. Results indicate that PA may have near-term cognitive effects and should be explored as a possible strategy to enhance older adults’ ability to perform cognitively complex activities within the context of daily living.