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Nicolas Hobson, Sherry L. Dupuis, Lora M. Giangregorio and Laura E. Middleton

and improve well-being among those with dementia are crucial. People with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) have cognitive impairment and a high risk of dementia, but still retain intact activities of daily living ( Petersen et al., 2014 ; Strout & Howard, 2012 ). MCI could be a pragmatic stage for

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Nicholas M. Hattrup, Rebekah L. Gardiner, Hannah Gray, Cailee E. Welch Bacon and Tamara C. Valovich McLeod

In a high school, college, and professional athletic population, does individualized baseline tests increase the diagnostic accuracy (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) of identifying cognitive impairments when utilizing neurocognitive testing compared to normative data? Search Strategy A search of

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Juliana Hotta Ansai, Larissa Pires de Andrade, Paulo Giusti Rossi, Theresa Helissa Nakagawa, Francisco Assis Carvalho Vale and José Rubens Rebelatto

Cognitive decline is the primary clinical marker of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer’s disease (AD), but some studies reported deficits in mobility situations, even in early stages of cognitive impairment ( Ansai et al., 2017 ; Bourke, Duncan, & Nimmosmith, 1996 ; Olivier, Cuisinier

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Silvia Varela, José M. Cancela, Manuel Seijo-Martinez and Carlos Ayán

, 2017 ). In relation to this, Varela, Ayán, Cancela, and Martín ( 2012 ) observed that the intensity of pedaling was not a determinant factor for this type of physical exercise on cognitive functional outcomes in older adults with cognitive impairment. Zak, Swine, and Grodzicki ( 2009 ) suggested that

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

useful to monitor cognitive impairment and a higher handgrip strength seems to protect against cognitive decline ( Fritz, McCarthy, & Adamo, 2017 ). Individuals with mild cognitive impairment suffer from a reduced memory span, executive function impairments, and an inability to concentrate ( Salloway

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Klaus Hauer, Stephen R. Lord, Ulrich Lindemann, Sarah E. Lamb, Kamiar Aminian and Michael Schwenk

The purpose of this study was to validate a new interview-administered physical activity questionnaire (Assessment of Physical Activity in Frail Older People; APAFOP) in older people with and without cognitive impairment. The authors assessed feasibility, validity, and test–retest reliability in 168 people (n = 78 with, n = 88 without cognitive impairment). Concurrent validity was assessed against an inertia-based motion sensor and an established questionnaire. Sensitivity to change was tested in an ongoing study in patients with mild to moderate dementia (n = 81). Assessment of physical activity by the APAFOP and the motion sensor correlated well in the total sample (TS; p = .705), as well as in the subsamples with cognitive impairment (CI; p = .585) and without CI (p = .787). Excellent feasibility with an acceptance rate of 100%, test–retest reliability (intraclass correlation coefficients ranging from .973 (TS) to .975 (CI) to .966 (no CI), and sensitivity to change (effect sizes: 0.35–1.47) were found in both subsamples.

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Erwin C.P.M. Tak, Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Mai J.M. Chin A Paw, Willem van Mechelen and Marijke Hopman-Rock

After a randomized controlled trial showing that improvement on some aspects of cognitive function was related to adherence to an exercise program, determinants of adherence and maintenance were further studied. Older adults with mild cognitive impairment were contacted 6 mo after the end of exercise programs for a telephone interview addressing patterns of adherence and determinants of maintenance. Mean adherence during the trial was 53%. About one third of participants had lapses during the trial but completed, one third had no lapses, and one third dropped out or never started. Practical barriers (time, location) were related to not starting and functional limitations to dropout. After the trial 25% of participants continued the programs, 14% reported intention to continue, and 61% quit. Maintenance was determined by fewer health complaints, higher satisfaction with the programs, and better adherence during the programs. Although maintenance was low, this study identified several reasons and barriers to adherence and maintenance that could be addressed.

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Karin Hesseberg, Hege Bentzen, Anette Hylen Ranhoff, Knut Engedal and Astrid Bergland

Maintenance of physical activity and good physical fitness is important for functional independence. This study had two aims: examine the physical fitness level in older persons with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or dementia, and examine the relationship between the components of physical fitness and cognitive domains in this group. The cross-sectional study included community-living older people ≥ 65 years of age with MCI or dementia. Physical fitness and cognition were assessed using the Senior Fitness Test and five cognitive tests. Most of the participants scored below the criteria for maintaining physical independence in later years. There were significant associations between the components of physical fitness and cognition, except flexibility. Declines in executive function were most related to declines in physical fitness. These factors should receive more attention in people with MCI and dementia because they risk losing independence.

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Jennifer N. Fogarty, Kelly J. Murphy, Bruce McFarlane, Manuel Montero-Odasso, Jennie Wells, Angela K. Troyer, Daniel Trinh, Iris Gutmanis and Kevin T. Hansen

Objective:

It was hypothesized that a combined Taoist Tai Chi (TTC) and a memory intervention program (MIP) would be superior to a MIP alone in improving everyday memory behaviors in individuals with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI). A secondary hypothesis was that TTC would improve cognition, self-reported health status, gait, and balance.

Method:

A total of 48 individuals were randomly assigned to take part in MIP + TTC or MIP alone. The TTC intervention consisted of twenty 90 min sessions. Outcome measures were given at baseline, and after 10 and 22 weeks.

Results:

Both groups significantly increased their memory strategy knowledge and use, ratings of physical health, processing speed, everyday memory, and visual attention. No preferential benefit was found for individuals in the MIP + TTC group on cognition, gait, or balance measures.

Conclusions:

Contrary to expectations, TTC exercise did not specifically improve cognition or physical mobility. Explanations for null findings are explored.

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Jannique G.Z. van Uffelen, Marijke J.M. Chinapaw, Marijke Hopman-Rock and Willem van Mechelen

This study examined the feasibility and effect on aerobic fitness of a 1-yr, twice-weekly, group-based moderate-intensity walking program (MI-WP, n = 77) compared with a low-intensity activity program (LI-AP, n = 75) for community-dwelling older adults with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Thirty participants did not start a program; median attendance in the other 122 participants was 71%. Small but significant associations were observed between attendance and memory in the MI-WP and general cognition in the LI-AP. Associations were no longer significant when both groups were analyzed together. Intensity, assessed using percentage of heart-rate reserve and the Borg scale, equaled intended intensity for both programs. Aerobic fitness improved significantly in participants in the MI-WP. In conclusion, cognition was not clearly associated with attendance in the 62 participants starting the MI-WP, and average attendance was good. The intensity was feasible for participants who continued the MI-WP. The findings support the proposal that regular moderate-intensity walking improves aerobic fitness in adults with MCI.