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Kelsey Picha, Carolina Quintana, Amanda Glueck, Matt Hoch, Nicholas R. Heebner and John P. Abt

incorporated additional cognitive loads similar to game play scenarios. Cognitive load has been defined as “a multidimensional construct representing the load that performing a particular task imposes on the learner’s cognitive system,” that can be measured through performance. 11 , 12 Sports involve a

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Chun-Hao Wang and Chia-Liang Tsai

The study aimed to investigate the effects of regular physical activity on visuospatial cognition in elderly adults, and to further understand the potential neural mechanisms underpinning such effects. We assessed 24 physically active elderly adults and 24 sedentary counterparts using behavioral and neuroelectric measures during a visuospatial cognitive task with different levels of cognitive load. The results showed that the active group had higher behavioral accuracy along with greater P3 amplitudes, regardless of the level of cognitive load. Moreover, the correlation results revealed that physical activity levels were positively associated with accuracy performance in both conditions, while being correlated with frontal P3 amplitudes in the high cognitively demanding condition. However, no significant effects were observed in terms of P3 latency and contingent negative variation. These findings suggest that regular physical activity might be part of an effective lifestyle to attenuate the trajectory of age-related cognitive declines, thus increasing the likelihood of individuals becoming high-functioning older adults.

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Stacy M. Lopresti-Goodman, Michael J. Richardson, Reuben M. Baron, Claudia Carello and Kerry L. Marsh

The actualization of a simple affordance task—grasping and moving wooden planks of different sizes using either one or two hands—was assessed in the context of taskrelevant (plank sequence, plank presentation speed) and task-irrelevant (cognitive load) manipulations. In Experiment 1, fast (3 s/plank) and self-paced (≈5 s/plank) presentation speeds revealed hysteresis; the transition point for ascending series was greater than the transition point for descending series. Hysteresis was eliminated in the slowest presentation speed (10 s/plank). In Experiment 2, hysteresis was exaggerated by a cognitive load (counting backward by seven) for both fast and slow presentation speeds. These results suggest that behavioral responses to the attractor dynamics of perceived affordances are processes that require minimal cognitive resources.

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Aïmen Khacharem, Bachir Zoudji, Slava Kalyuga and Hubert Ripoll

Cognitive load perspective was used as a theoretical framework to investigate effects of expertise and type of presentation of interacting elements of information in learning from dynamic visualizations. Soccer players (N = 48) were required to complete a recall reconstruction test and to rate their invested mental effort after studying a concurrent or sequential presentation of the elements of play. The results provided evidence for an expertise reversal effect. For novice players, the sequential presentation produced better learning outcomes. In contrast, expert players performed better after studying the concurrent presentation. The findings suggest that the effectiveness of different visual presentation formats depend on levels of learner expertise.

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Sebastien Pollet, James Denison-Day, Katherine Bradbury, Rosie Essery, Elisabeth Grey, Max Western, Fiona Mowbray, Kirsten A. Smith, Joanna Slodkowska-Barabasz, Nanette Mutrie, Paul Little and Lucy Yardley

. Participant stories model how similar individuals overcame concerns/barriers. (d) As nearly 20% of older adults will have some age-associated cognitive decline/mild cognitive impairment ( Petersen, 2016 ), Active Lives aims to minimize cognitive load and dependence on the intervention website to ensure

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Lauren A. Brown, Eric E. Hall, Caroline J. Ketcham, Kirtida Patel, Thomas A. Buckley, David R. Howell and Srikant Vallabhajosula

perform worse by turning slower and with greater variability when completing the turning gait task with a cognitive load compared with completing the turning gait task without cognitive load. Methods Participants Fifty-three division I uninjured varsity athletes participated in the study as part of a

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Paul R. Surburg, David L. Porretta and Vins Sutlive

The purpose of this study was to examine the role of imagery practice as supplementary practice in the performance of a throwing task. A secondary purpose was to ascertain if different cognitive demands of a motor task affected the use of this supplementary practice. Forty adolescents with mild mental retardation were randomly assigned to the following groups: low cognitive loading-physical practice, low cognitive loading-imagery and physical practice, high cognitive loading-physical practice, high cognitive loading-imagery and physical practice. Subjects engaged in seven practice sessions during which performance scores of a throwing task were recorded. Groups supplemented with imagery practice were superior in performance to nonimagery groups. A higher cognitive loading of the task did not enhance the use of this type of supplementary practice more than a lower loading. The results of this study reflect the efficacy of imagery practice as a means to improve motor performance of students with mild mental retardation.

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Salman Nazary-Moghadam, Mahyar Salavati, Ali Esteki, Behnam Akhbari, Sohrab Keyhani and Afsaneh Zeinalzadeh

during movement with inherent periodicity, and it is primarily effective for the gait analysis. 7 The LyE has been examined in treadmill walking with and without cognitive loads. 5 LyE measures gait stability or the sensitivity of a dynamic system to exceedingly small perturbations. To the best

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Caroline Westwood, Carolyn Killelea, Mallory Faherty and Timothy Sell

although the reason for the increased risk is not clear. The effects of concussion can last months after diagnosis, and many traditional tests do not detect persistent deficits. 3 The use of a dual-task assessment, which adds a cognitive load to a motor assessment, has the potential to be a more