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Cornelia Frank, Taeho Kim and Thomas Schack

first, but not the second block of execution trials during retention-test. Already after three execution trials, the performance during retention-test between the two groups was comparable. From this, the authors concluded that during observational learning a cognitive representation of the task is

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Cornelia Frank, Gian-Luca Linstromberg, Linda Hennig, Thomas Heinen and Thomas Schack

action imagery training would be reflected on the performance level, resulting in more successful team performance. This remains to be tested. Future research should therefore look at both changes on the cognitive representation level and changes on the motor performance level (e.g.,  Frank et al., 2014

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Nichola Callow, Dan Jiang, Ross Roberts and Martin G. Edwards

; Hardy, 1997 ), where the use of imagery can benefit motor performance by allowing individuals to supplement information that is already available from the physical movement. Specifically, the cognitive representation of KIN (and knowing how it feels to perform the imagined performance, perhaps

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Rebecca Robertson, Laura St. Germain and Diane M. Ste-Marie

relevant information to the viewer that enables the development of a cognitive representation that serves to ‘guide’ the later execution of the observed action. The cognitive representation is formed through symbolic coding of the observed movements and subsequent cognitive rehearsal ( Bandura, 1989 ). The

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Amanda M. Rymal

it is being used, I question the validity of simply asking one question or using a recall or recognition test as confirmation. It is difficult to ensure that participants created new strategies because of the observation intervention or that their cognitive representation in fact changed as a result

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Edward Hebert

action. Through these, the learner forms a cognitive representation of the motor pattern that is used to guide production of an action, and serves as a standard of correctness to which actions are compared ( Carroll & Bandura, 1982 ). Most modeling research has investigated the effects of observing a

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Aaron England, Timothy Brusseau, Ryan Burns, Dirk Koester, Maria Newton, Matthew Thiese and Benjamin Chase

.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4 10.1016/0028-3932(71)90067-4 Schack , T. ( 1999 ). Relation of cognitive representation and performance in extreme-surfing . In I. Wachsmuth & B. Jung (Eds.), KogWiss99. Symposium for Cognitive Science (Vol.  4 , pp.  207 – 212 ). St. Augustin, FL : Academia . Schack , T. ( 2004 ). The

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Michelle Smith, Hayley E. McEwan, David Tod and Amanda Martindale

’ve read a book on counseling skills . . . learning about active listening, learning about paraphrasing, summarizing. But of course it’s not just a series of techniques, it’s more the attitudes they reflect.” This cognitive representation of how things work is often referred to as a mental model