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Heather K. Neilson, Ruth Ullman, Paula J. Robson, Christine M. Friedenreich and Ilona Csizmadi


The qualitative attributes and quantitative measurement properties of physical activity questionnaires are equally important considerations in questionnaire appraisal, yet fundamental aspects such as question comprehension are not often described in the literature. Here we describe the use of cognitive interviewing to evaluate the Sedentary Time and Activity Reporting Questionnaire (STAR-Q), a self-administered questionnaire designed to assess overall activity energy expenditure and sedentary behavior.


Several rounds of one-on-one interviews were conducted by an interviewer trained in qualitative research methods. Interviewees included a convenience sample of volunteers and participants in the Tomorrow Project, a large cohort study in Alberta, Canada. Following each round of interviews the STAR-Q was revised and cognitively tested until saturation was achieved.


Six rounds of cognitive interviewing in 22 adults (5 males, 17 females) age 23−74 years, led to revisions involving 1) use of recall aids; 2) ambiguous terms; and 3) specific tasks, such as averaging across multiple routines, reporting time asleep and self-care, and reporting by activity domain.


Cognitive interviewing is a critical step in questionnaire development. Knowledge gained in this study led to revisions that improved respondent acceptability and comprehension of the STAR-Q and will complement ongoing validity testing.

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Elva M. Arredondo, Tamar Mendelson, Christina Holub, Nancy Espinoza and Simon Marshall


The validity of physical activity (PA) self-report measures can be a problem when using these measures with target populations that differ from the population for which the measures were originally developed.


Describe an approach to further tailor PA self-report measures to a target community, and report on focus group and cognitive interview findings.


Topics relevant to culturally tailoring measures are discussed, including translation, focus groups, and cognitive interviews. We describe examples from our own work, including focus groups and cognitive interviews conducted to assess Latinos’ interpretations of PA questions derived from various epidemiological surveys that were developed in White communities.


Findings from focus groups and cognitive interviews provide valuable information about the comprehension, interpretation, and cultural relevance of the PA questions to Latino communities.


It is recommended that investigators collect formative data to better assess the equivalence of items being applied to a different cultural group. Guidelines for cultural attunement of self-report instruments are described to promote more uniform and rigorous processes of adaptation and facilitate cross-cultural investigations.

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Christopher P. Tomczyk, George Shaver and Tamerah N. Hunt

approach to concussion assessment. The available literature does not provide sufficient evidence to include anxiety screening at baseline, but clinicians should be aware of the implications that high levels of anxiety during cognitive testing may be detrimental to performance. As more research is published

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David X. Marquez, Robert Wilson, Susan Aguiñaga, Priscilla Vásquez, Louis Fogg, Zhi Yang, JoEllen Wilbur, Susan Hughes and Charles Spanbauer

, there were main effects for time for several tests. There is a tendency for performance on cognitive tests to improve with repeat administration (retest effects or retest learning), and that could help to explain main effects on cognition. Also, one could argue that the changes in cognition in both

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Anis Kamoun, Omar Hammouda, Abdelmoneem Yahia, Oussema Dhari, Houcem Ksentini, Tarak Driss, Nizar Souissi and Mohamed Habib Elleuch

sleep questionnaire The Spiegel sleep questionnaire includes six questions to judge the quality of sleep. It calculates a score that ranges from 0 to 30. The higher is the score, the better is the sleep quality ( Carskadon et al., 1976 ). Cognitive Tests Choice reaction time Choice reaction time tests

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Peiyuan Wang, Frank J. Infurna and Sydney Y. Schaefer

, making it unclear whether these previous findings truly reflect a relationship between visuospatial function and motor learning, or are simply an artifact of the cognitive test used. Thus, the purpose of this study was to test the robustness of the previous findings with the more commonly used Montreal

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Carolina Menezes Fiorelli, Emmanuel Gomes Ciolac, Lucas Simieli, Fabiana Araújo Silva, Bianca Fernandes, Gustavo Christofoletti and Fabio Augusto Barbieri

cognitive tests described above before and after each intervention. Two participants were excluded of the study because they did not perform in the 3 sessions (only perform 1 session). Thus, 12 individuals performed the entire protocol. Figure 1 —Flowchart of the study design. CON indicates control session

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Margina Ruiter, Charly Eielts, Sofie Loyens and Fred Paas

seated rest and self-paced cycling on a desk bike in preadolescent children. The present study included several cognitive tests measuring cognitive control (ie, inhibition, visuospatial, and verbal working memory). On the basis of previous literature, it was expected that cognitive control was unaffected

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Zachary C. Merz, Joanne E. Perry and Michael J. Ross

a holistic understanding of the psychological and physical components related to concussions. Following Trent’s evolving understanding of the potential for cognitive deficits following concussion, our discussion turned toward neurocognitive assessment. As Trent had undergone cognitive testing via

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Sandra A. Billinger, Eric D. Vidoni, Jill K. Morris, John P. Thyfault and Jeffrey M. Burns

Positive physiologic and cognitive responses to aerobic exercise have resulted in a proposed cardiorespiratory (CR) fitness hypothesis in which fitness gains drive changes leading to cognitive benefit. The purpose of this study was to directly assess the CR fitness hypothesis. Using data from an aerobic exercise trial, we examined individuals who completed cardiopulmonary and cognitive testing at baseline and 26 weeks. Change in cognitive test performance was not related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .06, p = .06). However, in the subset of individuals who gave excellent effort during exercise testing, change in cognitive test performance was related to CR fitness change (r 2 = .33, p < .01). This was largely due to change in the cognitive domain of attention (r 2 = .36, p < .01). The magnitude of change was not explained by duration of exercise. Our findings support further investigation of the CR fitness hypothesis and mechanisms by which physiologic adaptation may drive cognitive change.