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Nathan Millikan, Dustin R. Grooms, Brett Hoffman and Janet E. Simon

challenge cognition in addition to physical abilities. Several laboratory-based biomechanical reports have confirmed increased injury risk movement strategies when under cognitive or visual load, however, typical functional testing does not incorporate such visual or cognitive aspects that increase injury

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Carla Sordoni, Craig Hall and Lorie Forwell


To determine whether athletes use motivational and cognitive imagery during injury rehabilitation and to develop an instrument for measuring imagery use.


A survey concerning imagery use during rehabilitation was administered to injured athletes.


The Fowler Kennedy Sport Medicine Clinic in London, Ontario, Canada.


Injured athletes (N = 71) receiving physiotherapy.

Main Outcome Measure:

The Athletic Injury Imagery Questionnaire (AIIQ).


As hypothesized, 2 distinct factors emerged from the items on the AIIQ: motivational and cognitive imagery. Motivational imagery was used more often than cognitive imagery in this context, yet less frequently than in other sport situations (eg, training and competition).


The study indicates that the AIIQ is a potentially useful tool through which physiotherapists and sport psychologists can examine athletes' use of imagery in injury rehabilitation.

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Francesca Genoese, Shelby E. Baez, Nicholas Heebner, Matthew C. Hoch and Johanna M. Hoch

to changes in cognitive appraisal, but also physiological and attentional changes, such as increased muscle tension, narrowing of the visual field, or increased distractibility. 10 These changes can alter VMRT and may also increase injury risk. This is important, as previous research has identified

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Daniel T. Bishop, Michael J. Wright, Robin C. Jackson and Bruce Abernethy

The aim of this study was to examine the neural bases for perceptual-cognitive superiority in a soccer anticipation task using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Thirty-nine participants lay in an MRI scanner while performing a video-based task in which they predicted an oncoming opponent’s movements. Video clips were occluded at four time points, and participants were grouped according to in-task performance. Early occlusion reduced prediction accuracy significantly for all participants, as did the opponent’s execution of a deceptive maneuver; however, high-skill participants were significantly more accurate than their low-skill counterparts under deceptive conditions. This perceptual-cognitive superiority was associated with greater activation of cortical and subcortical structures involved in executive function and oculomotor control. The contributions of the present findings to an existing neural model of anticipation in sport are highlighted.

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Daniel J. Peart, Michael Graham, Callum Blades and Ian H. Walshe

typically consist of a set number of rounds interspersed by short rest periods. Such periods may offer an opportunity for athletes to perform a mouth rinse without hindering their performance during active rounds. These sports would also arguably benefit from an attenuation in cognitive as well as physical

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Thomas Gretton, Lindsey Blom, Dorice Hankemeier and Lawrence Judge

research remain underexamined. With this in mind, this case study sought to contribute to PPR research by exploring the cognitive PPR component, which relates to the psychological skills, techniques, and experiences of a unique population in elite high jumpers. The sport of high jump was selected for this

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Kelsey Picha, Carolina Quintana, Amanda Glueck, Matt Hoch, Nicholas R. Heebner and John P. Abt

is vital following concussion and is often impaired as a result of these injuries. 4 Postinjury standard of care typically involves complete cognitive and physical rest, although emerging evidence suggests more active management strategies may be more effective. 5 Both stress the importance of

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

, neurological, sensory, and cognitive system changes ( Faulkner, Larkin, Claflin, & Brooks, 2007 ; Zawadka-Kunikowska et al., 2014 ). In older adults, regular physical exercise training is important because exercise or leisure activities are recommended to delay or reverse age-related changes ( Levin, Netz

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Anthony G. Delli Paoli, Alan L. Smith and Matthew B. Pontifex

( Baumeister et al., 2005 ; Baumeister, Twenge, & Nuss, 2002 ). Social exclusion is hypothesized to influence self-regulatory systems through affective and cognitive responses to social exclusion. For instance, people who are excluded typically report “hurt feelings” ( MacDonald & Leary, 2005 ) and

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Edmund O. Acevedo, David A. Dzewaltowski, Diane L. Gill and John M. Noble

The purpose of this study was to examine the sport-specific cognitions of 112 ultramarathoners competing in a 100-mile trail run. Subjects completed the Sport Orientation Questionnaire, the Trait Sport-Confidence Inventory, the Commitment to Running Scale, and a questionnaire designed by the investigators to assess goals, cognitive strategies, perceptions of “runner’s high,” and feelings that occur when subjects are unable to run. Ultramarathoners were more confident, more committed to running, slightly higher in competitiveness, lower on win orientation, and higher on goal orientation in comparison to other athletes. Ultramarathoners also rated importance of and commitment to time goals very high; importance of and commitment to place goals were rated low. No significant differences in cognitive orientations were found between finishers and nonfinishers or between males and females. Responses to open-ended questions revealed that most ultramarathoners reported predominately external thoughts during races, had feelings of psychological well-being and strength as a result of ultramarathoning, never or rarely experienced runner’s high, and experienced negative psychological states when unable to run. Overall, these results demonstrate the unique sport-specific cognitive orientations of ultramarathoners.