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Kyle Siler

person who leads or directs a group or activity.” Norwood ( 2000 ) observed, “[t]he white-dominated football hierarchy often labeled blacks as ‘athletes’ who should play cornerback, receiver or running back, sometimes suggesting that they lacked the passing and cognitive abilities to play quarterback

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Joris Drayer, Brendan Dwyer and Stephen L. Shapiro

gamblers are more highly involved in the activity, whereas extrinsically motivated gamblers may be less involved but may be more likely to exhibit cognitive abilities predisposing them to problem gambling ( Chantal & Vallerand, 1996 ; Chantal et al., 1995 ). The varying messages coming from the major DFS

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Michael Gay and Semyon Slobounov

, biomarkers, and neuropsychological screening methods capable of providing clinical baseline measures of normative function in the brain. The idea of assessment of normal function allows the clinician and researcher to understand what cognitive abilities are present under normal functional conditions. This

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Brendan Dwyer, Joris Drayer and Stephen L. Shapiro

gambling literature, the cognitive abilities of gamblers are often referred to as “cognitive distortions” because the mental shortcuts, or heuristics, that people use to assess risk and probability are frequently erroneous, particularly for those defined as problem gamblers ( Kahneman & Tversky, 1979

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Jeeyoon Kim and Jeffrey D. James

.g., sportsmanship, hard work). In team sport, the sense can come from achievements at individual as well as a team level. In sport participation, achievements are derived from direct experience and can come from physical abilities as well as social and cognitive abilities. In sport spectating and sport media viewing