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Shaunna M. Burke, Andrew C. Sparkes, and Jacquelyn Allen-Collinson

This ethnographic study examined how a group of high altitude climbers (N = 6) drew on ethnomethodological principles (the documentary method of interpretation, reflexivity, indexicality, and membership) to interpret their experiences of cognitive dissonance during an attempt to scale Mt. Everest. Data were collected via participant observation, interviews, and a field diary. Each data source was subjected to a content mode of analysis. Results revealed how cognitive dissonance reduction is accomplished from within the interaction between a pattern of self-justification and self-inconsistencies; how the reflexive nature of cognitive dissonance is experienced; how specific features of the setting are inextricably linked to the cognitive dissonance experience; and how climbers draw upon a shared stock of knowledge in their experiences with cognitive dissonance.

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Hugh Gilmore, Stephen Shannon, Gerard Leavey, Martin Dempster, Shane Gallagher, and Gavin Breslin

could be viewed as practicing cognitive dissonance. Cognitive dissonance is defined as altering one’s beliefs and behaviors to reduce the discomfort associated with conflicting or opposing information regarding one’s behaviors ( Festinger, 1962 ). Authors ( Newby-Clark, McGregor, & Zanna, 2002 ) have

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Danielle Arigo, Paul Rohde, Heather Shaw, and Eric Stice


Moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) is critical for maintaining a healthy weight, although little is known about psychological barriers to maintaining MVPA in at-risk groups. Identifying characteristics associated with poor MVPA maintenance in obesity prevention programs could improve participant outcomes.


Toward this end, we examined predictors of MVPA in an obesity prevention trial for college students at risk for weight gain (n = 333; 72% female, mean BMI = 23.4 kg/m2). Participants engaged in 1 of 3 weight control interventions and in 4 assessments over 12-month follow-up (ie, measured height/weight, self-reports of psychosocial characteristics, 4 days of accelerometer wear).


Multilevel modeling analyses showed that across conditions, participants decreased total MVPA minutes per week over 12 months (B = –5.48, P < .01). Baseline self-report scores for both impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance regarding engaging in unhealthy behaviors negatively predicted MVPA over time. Participants higher (vs. lower) in baseline impulsiveness (B = –6.89, P = .03) and dissonance (B = –4.10, P = .04) began the study with more MVPA minutes, but showed sharper declines over time.


Targeted MVPA-focused intervention for students who show elevated impulsiveness and cognitive dissonance may improve both MVPA and weight control outcomes for these individuals.

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April Tripp and Claudine Sherrill

This paper emphasizes that attitude research in adapted physical education must become increasingly theory oriented. Likewise, teacher training must broaden to include scholarly study in relation to social psychology and attitude theory. To facilitate progress in this direction, nine attitude theories have been abstracted from the literature and reviewed under four general headings: learning-behavior theories, cognitive integration theories, consistency theories, and reasoned action theory. Individual theories presented are (a) contact, (b) mediated generalization, (c) assimilation-contrast or persuasive communication, (d) stigma, (e) interpersonal relations, (f) group dynamics, (g) cognitive dissonance, and (h) reasoned action. Illustrations of how each theory applies to selected studies in adapted physical education research and practice are offered, and a lengthy reference list provides both primary and secondary sources for the further study of attitudes.

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Yonghwan Chang, Yong Jae Ko, and Brad D. Carlson

consideration. That is, cognitive dissonance is unlikely to motivate the individual to deliberately appraise the endorsement information, because low involvement is characterized by low personal relevance or importance ( Zaichkowsky, 1985 ). However, consumers with high involvement will be motivated to diagnose

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Yonghwan Chang

produce favorable implicit attitudes through a repetitive pairing with stimuli that evoke positive feelings. This initial favorableness, however, is likely to be retroactively negated once propositional reasoning is involved due to the illogicality that produces cognitive dissonance ( Gawronski

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Hannah Dorling, Jieg Blervacq, and Yori Gidron

PI method) predicts behavior change (study 2). It is hypothesized that PI may induce a temporary cognitive dissonance between a newly acquired health-related cognition following PI (eg, “I actually do have 10 min/d for physical activity”) and an existing unhealthy behavior (lacking PA). Induction of

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Moira Lafferty and Caroline Wakefield

important to note that cognitive dissonance ( Festinger, 1957 ) may also contribute to the lack of understanding or acknowledgment regarding initiation events. Athletes who have been subjected to initiations may downplay the negative event and rationalize and justify their involvement as being merely a team

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Judy L. Van Raalte, Lorraine Wilson, Allen Cornelius, and Britton W. Brewer

dives. In contrast, athletes who use assigned self-talk (System 2) such as “I can do it” that conflicts with their gut feelings and impressions about their abilities can experience self-talk dissonance. As with cognitive dissonance, the discomfort caused by using self-talk that is in conflict with gut

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Robert E. Rinehart

itself a style, or better, an antistyle” (ibid.). This affirms that the avant-garde is both a descriptor of individuals and a movement. For sport, I argue that retaining the ability to shock—or better, to unsettle, reframe, provide serious cognitive dissonance—as well as the resistance to status quo