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Hanan Khalil, Mahmoud A. Alomari, Omar Khabour, Aya Al-Hieshan, and Jawad A. Bajwa

intensities can improve executive function in people with PD ( Murray, Sacheli, Eng, & Stoessl, 2014 ). The exact mechanisms for the exercise-induced improvements in cognitive function in people with PD are still equivocal. However, studies in individuals with and without neurological disorders suggest that

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Kate Riegle van West, Cathy Stinear, and Ralph Buck

, 2015 ). The aim of this study was to determine if a novel intervention, poi, has a beneficial effect on physical and cognitive function in healthy older adults. Poi is a ball on a string, which is swung in circular patterns around the body. There are many different styles of poi, the earliest known

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Pankaja Desai, Shannon Halloway, Klodian Dhana, Yanyu Zhang, Thomas Holland, Puja Agarwal, Christopher N. Ford, Carlos Mendes de Leon, Denis A. Evans, and Martha C. Morris

impairment in older adults ranges from 3% to 42%, based on type and methods used to diagnose ( U.S. Preventive Services Task Force, 2020 ). Given the growing older adult population, it is imperative to find ways to effectively maintain and improve cognitive function ( Centers for Disease Control and

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Chun-Chih Wang, Brandon Alderman, Chih-Han Wu, Lin Chi, Su-Ru Chen, I-Hua Chu, and Yu-Kai Chang

Recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses have demonstrated significant positive effects of acute exercise on cognitive function ( Chang, Labban, Gapin, & Etnier, 2012 ; Lambourne & Tomporowski, 2010 ; McMorris & Hale, 2015 ). However, the effects reported to describe the association between

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Freja Gheysen, Karel Herman, and Delfien Van Dyck

the functioning of older adults may moderate the relation between neighborhood environment and their PA levels. Apart from their physical functioning, older adults’ health status (i.e., biological, individual-level determinant of PA) is also determined by their cognitive functioning. The normal

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Eka Peng Cox, Rebecca Cook, Nicholas O’Dwyer, Cheyne Donges, Helen Parker, Hoi Lun Cheng, Katharine Steinbeck, Janet Franklin, and Helen O’Connor

reducing comorbidities and risk of lifestyle diseases including obesity, coronary heart disease, stroke, type 2 diabetes, and some forms of cancer. 10 Emerging evidence also suggests that PA may enhance cognitive function and lower risk of cognitive decline and dementia. 11 PA may also protect against

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Carlos Ayán, Paulo Carvalho, Silvia Varela, and José María Cancela

necessary, as it has been observed that exercise has a selective protective effect on the cognitive function of middle-aged women. 3 However, research on the relationship between physical exercise training and cognitive function in healthy adult people remains scarce, particularly in women, who have been

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Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Anthony Papathomas, Jonathan Foster, Eleanor Quested, and Nikos Ntoumanis

, evidence is also accumulating showing that physical activity, which includes structured exercise, can improve cognitive functioning and reduce the incidence of dementia ( Ahlskog, Geda, Graff-Radford, & Petersen, 2011 ). A meta-analytic review of 29 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) with healthy (i

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Isaac Estevan, Sergio Gandia, Israel Villarrasa-Sapiña, José Luis Bermejo, and Xavier García-Massó

, Cinar, Majnemer, & Gagnon, 2017 ). Balance and the cognitive function (e.g., working memory) can potentially influence each other ( Huang & Mercer, 2001 ). Studies conducted on the relationship between motor performance and working memory require individuals to perform both tasks simultaneously ( dual

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Wonjae Choi and Seungwon Lee

( Marshall et al., 2011 ). Impairment of instrumental activities of daily living leads to early loss of social engagement and independence. Thus, improvement of muscle strength through the kayak paddling movement might help maintain or improve cognitive function and quality of life. Kayaking has the