The aims of this field-based study were to evaluate the effects of a cognitive intervention technique and to further examine the anxiety–performance relationship in semiprofessional soccer players. Participants completed a composite version of the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2) 20 minutes before three soccer league matches. Two experimental groups, one suffering from debilitative cognitive anxiety (n = 8), one suffering from debilitative somatic anxiety (n = 8), undertook a 12-week cognitive intervention. Player performances were evaluated using intraindividual criteria. A series of two-way analyses of variance (group and event), with repeated measures on the second factor, indicated significant Group × Event interactions for cognitive anxiety intensity and direction, and somatic anxiety intensity and direction, yet failed to reveal significant interactions or main effects for the performance measures. This study provided partial support for the “matching hypothesis” in that a compatible treatment proved more effective in reducing the targeted anxiety in both experimental groups.
Ian W. Maynard, Martin J. Smith, and Lawrence Warwick-Evans
Claire Sangster Jokić, Helene Polatajko, and David Whitebread
Children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD) experience difficulty performing everyday motor tasks. It is has been suggested that children with DCD have fewer self-regulatory (SR) skills with which to acquire motor skills. This article presents the results of an exploratory study examining the development of SR competence among ten 7–9-year-old children with DCD participating in the Cognitive Orientation to daily Occupational Performance (CO-OP) program (Polatajko & Mandich, 2004). Using a quantitative observational coding method, children’s SR behavior was examined and compared across intervention sessions. Results indicate that children demonstrating improved motor performance similarly demonstrated more independent and effective SR behaviors. In contrast, children whose motor performance remained relatively stable failed to demonstrate such a change. These findings suggest that CO-OP enables SR performance among children with motor performance difficulties and, as a result, facilitates improved task performance.
Flora Panteli, Charilaos Tsolakis, Dimitris Efthimiou, and Athanasia Smirniotou
This study examined the contribution of instructional self-talk and observational learning on the development of long jump technique. Sixty-nine beginner athletes were randomly assigned to four groups: ‘self-talk’, ‘video’, ‘self-talk + video’ and control group. All groups performed 24 practice sessions, consisting of a cognitive intervention program in the form of either instructional self-talk or observational learning, or a combination of both, and the practice of specific drills. A significantly higher performance improvement was recorded for the self-talk group in post test, whereas when kinematic variables of the motor skill (center of mass displacement) were assessed, “observational learning” proved to be more effective. The findings of the current study suggest that young, beginner athletes, participating in complicated tasks, may benefit from cognitive intervention techniques, through enhanced attentional focus on the most critical elements of the motor skill.
Lorette J. Pen, Craig Fisher, Gary A. Sforzo, and Beth G. McManis
The effects of cognitive strategies on pain tolerance and performance in subjects with muscle soreness were investigated. Female (n = 18) and male (n =12) subjects were matched for strength and then randomly assigned to dissociation, association, or control groups. Muscle soreness was induced in the quadriceps and hamstrings muscle groups by repeated eccentric contractions against heavy resistance, which resulted in significant decrements in peak torque (PT) and total work (TW). ANOVAs revealed no significant group differences (p < .05) in muscle soreness, state anxiety, and estimated strength and endurance performance 48 hr following the soreness induction. Association strategy subjects increased their quadriceps strength performance following cognitive intervention, whereas strength performance in the dissociation and control groups was not affected. No significant treatment effects were observed for hamstrings strength or quadriceps and hamstrings endurance. Both dissociation and association groups perceived that using the strategies enhanced their performance. This illusory efficacy effect may have implications for performance enhancement, particularly in injury rehabilitation.
Chris Harwood and Austin Swain
The present study forms the first of two progressive investigations into the development and activation of achievement goals within young sports performers. The focal research question in this paper centers on identifying and understanding some of the underlying factors and processes responsible for the socialization of goal orientations and the activation of goal involvement states in a competition context. In-depth interviews were conducted on seventeen elite junior tennis players who represented a full cross-section of achievement goal profiles. Following inductive content analyses, four general dimensions emerged demonstrating how the development and activation of task and ego goals rested on a complex interaction of cognitive-developmental and social-environmental factors. Specific general dimensions included cognitive developmental skills and experiences, the motivational climate conveyed by significant others, the structural and social nature of the game, and the match context. The rich detail within these dimensions serves not only to extend our knowledge of achievement goals and achievement goal theory, but also to inform practitioners of key components to effective social-cognitive interventions.
Julinling Hu, Yixun Chen, Nanyan Li, Yufei Wang, Yuliang Zha, and Junmin Zhou
function allows us to look more closely at the impact of different PA on each dimension and thus enables us to provide specific implications for cognitive interventions. Therefore, the current study sought to examine the association between total PA (leisure-time PA, household PA, and work-related PA) and
Katherine A. Tamminen, Kaleigh Ferdinand Pennock, and Courtney Braun
). Coping interventions have also been delivered in sport settings to help manage changes in athletes’ emotions immediately after losing a competition. Working with adult female field hockey players, Arathoon and Malouff ( 2004 ) used a cognitive intervention where players focused on positive thought
Ming Ding, Hui Ouyang, Caiyun Zhang, Lijun Jiang, Runsen Zhuang, Xiaomei Dong, Xiongfei Chen, Hongmei Yang, and Qian Tao
that physical exercise facilitates synaptic plasticity and neurogenesis via growth factors elicited by cognitive stimulation ( Olson, Eadie, Ernst, & Christie, 2006 ). On the other hand, cognitive interventions “guide” the facilitated plasticity potential by regulating synapse formation and elimination
Andressa Crystine da Silva Sobrinho, Mariana Luciano de Almeida, Vagner Ramon Rodrigues Silva, Guilherme da Silva Rodrigues, Karine Pereira Rodrigues, Camila de Paula Monteiro, and Carlos Roberto Bueno Júnior
relationship between the quality of movement, considering different global and universal basic patterns of movement, and cognition domains in older adults remain unknown. Understanding these potential associations could lead to the design of motor and cognitive interventions aimed at improving the quality of
Angela Papadimitriou and Mark Perry
behavioral therapies. Intervention Inclusion: Any cognitive and/or behavioral interventions (group or individual), such as • Cognitive interventions focused on restructuring faulty attitudes and beliefs about falling. • Behavioral interventions focused on encouraging behaviors that would reduce