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Stephan Swinnen, Joost Vandenberghe, and Erik Van Assche

This study sought to determine the relationships between the cognitive styles field dependence-independence and reflection-impulsivity and the acquisition of a gross motor skill in an unstructured learning environment. In reference to the first cognitive style construct, it was hypothesized that field-independent subjects perform better than field-dependent subjects because they provide organization when the material to be learned lacks structure, leading them to rely on their analyzing and restructuring ability. The second construct refers to cognitive inhibition required for response uncertainty tasks as well as motor impulse inhibition. Subjects (57 boys, 65 girls) were 13-year-old junior high school students. Several visual perceptual tests were administered and gymnastic performance scores were measured at pretest, during the learning session, and posttest. The hypothesis that field-independent subjects are more successful in an unstructured learning environment than field-dependent subjects was confirmed for boys only. The correlations between the reflection-impulsivity variables and gymnastic performance were generally low, and no support could be found for the hypothesis that reflective subjects are more successful in learning the skill than impulsive subjects.

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Madeleine Vincent-Morin and Lucile Lafont

The goal of this study was to identify the relationships between the learning choices made by pupils and their personal characteristics, including cognitive style (field dependence–independence), a motivational variable (feeling of self-efficacy), and a cognitive variable (task representation). The participants were 64 twelve-year-old sixth graders from a suburban middle school in France (35 boys and 29 girls). Cognitive style or FDI was measured with the Group Embedded Figures Test, a perceptual test that requires finding a simple geometrical figure embedded in a complex geometrical one. Five learning conditions (autonomy, tutoring, verbal instruction, silent demonstration, and verbal demonstration) were then proposed in random order to the pupils. They were asked to select a learning method to solve a motor problem: a badminton service. The results indicated an absence of relationships between the choice of a learning condition and cognitive style. Three variables partially predicted the learning-condition choice: feeling of self-efficacy, task representation, and motor performance. The present results can be interpreted in the light of studies on children’s help-seeking behavior in problem-solving situations.

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E. Dean Ryan and Jeff Simons

To investigate the mental imagery aspect of mental rehearsal, 80 male traffic officers from the California Highway Patrol learned a novel balancing task during a single session. Based on a pretest questionnaire, subjects were categorized as imagers, nonimagers, or occasional imagers and assigned to one of six groups accordingly: imagers asked to use imagery in mental rehearsal, imagers asked to try not to use imagery, nonimagers asked not to use imagery, nonimagers asked to try to use imagery, physical practice, or no practice. It was hypothesized that a person's preferred cognitive style would prove most effective for use in mental rehearsal and that using another style would cause a decrement in learning. Improvement scores indicated no differences between subjects who initially reported typically using imagery and those reported typically not using it, but groups asked to use imagery in mental rehearsal were superior to those asked not to (p<.001). Overall, physical practice was better than the grouped mental rehearsal conditions, and both were better than no practice. Subjects reporting strong visual imagery were superior to those with weak visual images (p<.03), and those reporting strong kinesthetic imagery were superior to those with weak kinesthetic images (p<.03). Regardless of one's typical cognitive style, the use of vivid imagery appears quite important for enhancement of motor performance through mental rehearsal.

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Catherine D. Ennis and Jepkorir R. Chepyator-Thomson

The purpose of this research was the examination of the field-dependent/independent cognitive style as it related to learning within a Logsdon-based movement curriculum. Subjects consisted of 104 children scoring in the 1st- (field independent) and 4th-quartile (field dependent) on the Children’s Embedded Figures Test. Observation and interview data were collected by the two researchers over a 4-month period. Data were analyzed using constant comparison. Field-independent students’ performance was consistent with teacher expectations during the majority of the classes observed. Field-dependent students experienced difficulty focusing on lesson discussion, following directions, and working independently. The discussion focused on the role of structure and the influence of social relationships on learning behaviors of field-dependent children.

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Melinda A. Solmon and Stephen Silverman

. PubMed ID: 2091166 doi:10.1080/02701367.1990.10607477 10.1080/02701367.1990.10607477 Ennis , C.D. , & Lazarus , J.C. ( 1990 ). Cognitive style and gender differences in children’s motor task performance . Early Child Development and Care, 64 , 33 – 46 . doi:10.1080/0300443900640104 10

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Haichun Sun and Tan Zhang

curriculum affects students’ learning behaviors with field-dependent cognitive styles. Two elementary physical education specialists who adopted the Logsdon curriculum and their second-grade students ( N  = 208) were involved in the study. Observations and interviews of teachers and children over a 4-month

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Richard Tahtinen, Michael McDougall, Niels Feddersen, Olli Tikkanen, Robert Morris, and Noora J. Ronkainen

depression. According to this theory, dysfunctional attitudes interact with a salient stressor to trigger negative automatic thoughts about oneself, the world and the future, which in turn give rise to depressive symptoms. In the hopelessness model, attributional or cognitive style is framed as the key

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Ang Chen

strong practical significance. I remember that soon after I arrived at Wisconsin, I joined her research on cognitive styles and motor skill–learning processes. Except for her teaching times, she was out in the schools collecting data. She constantly told me that collecting data for a real research

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Patrick C. Maughan, Niall G. MacFarlane, and Paul A. Swinton

AL , Mansell W , Sadhnani V , Morrison AP , Tai S . Principal components analysis of the hypomanic attitudes and positive predictions inventory and associations with measures of personality, cognitive style and analogue symptoms in a student sample . Behav Cogn Psychother . 2010 ; 38

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Jolanthe de Koning, Suzanne Richards, and Afroditi Stathi

loneliness and lower self-reported PA in 229 adults aged 50–68 years. Loneliness at baseline has also been linked to depression at follow-up measures in longitudinal studies ( Cacioppo et al., 2010 ; Jaremka et al., 2014 ). Thus, lonely individuals may be more likely to have cognitive styles of processing