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Lawrence R. Brawley, Madelaine S. H. Gierc, and Sean R. Locke

There are multiple avenues to gain health promoting and disease preventing benefits of physical activity (PA) but nonadherence makes health benefits short-lived. Gains obtained through structured exercise training and therapy quickly decay once participants leave programs. Scientific position statements underscore cognitive-behavioral strategies (CBS) as an essential intervention component to increase and maintain PA and recommend transfer of CBS knowledge to practice. Our review of reviews indicates high quality PA interventions involving CBS consistently demonstrate medium effect sizes. Kinesiologists are the human resource capacity to translate this knowledge. Building capacity to implement CBS knowledge is potentially large given North American kinesiology programs and American College of Sports Medicine and Canadian Society for Exercise Physiology certification routes. Yet CBS training of kinesiologists by universities and organizations is minimal. Immediate change in CBS training and practice is needed. Professional organizations/institutions can either be leaders in developing human resources or part of the problem should they fail to address the challenge of CBS training.

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Sarah E. Scott, Jeff D. Breckon, Robert J. Copeland, and Andrew Hutchison

Background:

Physical activity is promoted to help adults manage chronic health conditions, but evidence suggests that individuals relapse after intervention cessation. The objective of this study was to explore the determinants and strategies for successful and unsuccessful physical activity maintenance.

Methods:

A qualitative study using semistructured interviews was conducted with 32 participants. Purposive sampling was used to recruit 20 successful and 12 unsuccessful maintainers. Adults with chronic health conditions were recruited having completed a physical activity referral scheme 6 months before study commencement. The IPAQ and SPAQ were used to categorize participants according to physical activity status. Data were analyzed using framework analysis.

Results:

Eleven main themes emerged: 1) outcome expectations, 2) experiences, 3) core values, 4) trial and error, 5) social and practical support, 6) attitudes toward physical activity, 7) environmental barriers, 8) psychological barriers, 9) physical barriers, 10) cognitive-behavioral strategies for physical activity self-management (eg, self-monitoring), and 11) condition management (eg, pacing).

Conclusions:

The findings identified determinants and strategies for successful maintenance and highlighted the processes involved in physical activity disengagement. Such findings can guide the development of physical activity maintenance interventions and increase activity engagement over the long-term in adults with chronic health conditions.

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Mark H. Anshel

Drug abuse in competitive sport continues to be pervasive. Numerous explanations have been given for this and the reasons range from performance enhancement (anabolic steroids) to relieving stress and boredom (so-called recreational drugs). Drug testing, strict policies and enforcement, and educational programs have continued to be the main responses to the problem. However, relatively little attention has been given to preventive rather than punitive and curative strategies, particularly with respect to the coach’s input. This article offers several cognitive and behavioral approaches for coaches and sport psychology consultants in dealing with drug abuse among athletes. The recommendations are based on personal interactions with hundreds of intercollegiate athletes conducted over a 6-year period and from the extant professional literature.

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Diane E. Whaley

Future-oriented self-perceptions, or possible selves (Markus & Nurius, 1986), represent how individuals think about their potential and their future. To explore the cognitive processes involved in the decision to exercise, the possible selves of 203 middle-aged women from a university community, representing a range of exercise behaviors, were examined. Comparisons were made of possible selves identified by participants across levels of exercise behavior, and the ability of possible selves to discriminate exercisers from nonexercisers was examined. Group differences were most evident in possible selves related to body image, with hoped-for and feared selves more likely to be described by inactive individuals than by their more active counterparts. The self-regulatory mechanisms of self-efficacy, outcome expectancy, and importance discriminated nonexercisers from exercisers, particularly long-term exercisers. Findings support the conclusion that possible selves related to exercise is a useful construct for examining the process of behavioral change and for planning future exercise interventions.

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Audie A. Atienza, Brian Oliveira, B.J. Fogg, and Abby C. King

This pilot investigation used portable electronic diaries to assess the physical activity and other health behaviors of 20 adults age 50+ (mean age = 61 years). Study aims were to examine whether computerized cognitive-behavioral strategies could increase adherence to the assessments, the acceptability of electronic diaries to assess everyday health, and the relationship between computerized physical activity assessments with a standardized physical activity measure. Although approximately two thirds of participants had never used an electronic diary, results indicated that a large majority (83%) reported enjoying the use of the electronic diaries, and most (72%) reported enjoying answering all of the health questions. The cognitive-behavioral strategies employed did not enhance assessment adherence, but electronic-diary-based activity levels corresponded more strongly with the poststudy standardized activity measure than the baseline standardized measure, providing evidence of temporal convergence. Findings suggest that the use of portable electronic technology in physical activity assessment of middle-aged and older adults deserves further study.

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David Collins, Michael Doherty, and Steven Talbot

Using an exemplar case study of an intervention completed in the sport of motocross, the authors attempt to demonstrate the advantages inherent in using integrated multidisciplinary approaches in the application of sport sciences to performance enhancement. The need for comprehensive, detailed, and well-planned interventions, which of necessity take time to both set up and implement, is also highlighted. In addition, the authors furnish examples of practical techniques that can be used to facilitate cognitive behavioral strategies in this type of sport. Implications for the preparation and training of applied sport psychology consultants are briefly discussed.

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Mark H. Anshel

This article proposes a new approach to health behavior change, the disconnected values (intervention) model (DVM). The DVM consists of predetermined cognitive-behavioral strategies for initiating and maintaining changes in health behavior, such as the implementation of an exercise program. The model consists of helping clients (a) examine the benefits, in contrast to the costs and long-term consequences, of the habit they most want to change; (b) identify their deepest values and beliefs (e.g., health, family, faith, integrity); (c) detect a “disconnect” between the negative habit and the identified values; and (d) conclude whether the disconnect is acceptable, given its costs and long-term consequences. The client’s conclusion that the disconnect is unacceptable creates incentive and commitment for health behavior change. The theoretical foundations of the DVM are explained, and its specific application for exercise behavior change is described. Three outcome studies also are reported, as well as a brief case study. Implications for practitioners and suggestions for future research are provided.

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Reinhard Fuchs, Wiebke Goehner, and Harald Seelig

Background:

Little is known about the long-term effects of group intervention programs targeting physical exercise. This paper reports on the effectiveness of MoVo-LISA, a theory-based (MoVo-concept) standardized intervention program. Participants are taught cognitive-behavioral strategies of goal-setting, action planning, barrier management, and self-monitoring.

Methods:

N = 220 in-patients of an orthopedic rehabilitation clinic were assigned to the usual care group (UCG) or the intervention group (IG) (quasi-experimental design). Assessments were conducted at 5 time points.

Results:

At 12-month follow-up, level of exercise in the IG was 28.5 min/week higher than in the UCG (P = .05). Moreover, 50% of the IG was exercising for at least 60 min/week, but only 33% of the UCG (P = .01). During the 12 months after clinic discharge, patients of the IG reported the same low pain experience that they had reached at the end of the clinic stay, whereas UCG patients’ pain experience slowly reincreased.

Conclusions:

Results provide evidence that intervention programs based on the MoVo concept lead to long-term improvement in exercise behavior and health status.

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Rory Mack, Jeff Breckon, Joanne Butt, and Ian Maynard

framework Follow-up Cognitive-behavioral strategies Note. MI = motivational interviewing. Table 3 Sport Context That Enables Opportunities for the Application of Motivational Interviewing Theme Subthemes Challenges of working with athletes Mandated attendance Confidentiality Stigma toward psychology

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Kelley Strohacker and Cory T. Beaumont

). On the other hand, an assumption of classic behavioral theories is that humans make rational decisions based on cognitive appraisals, with little regard specifically to task demand. For example, common cognitive-behavioral strategies (e.g., stimulus control, self-monitoring, problem-solving) are