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Brennan Petersen, Mark Eys, Kody Watson and M. Blair Evans

psychological structure, which includes variables such as roles, norms, status, and leadership. The Carron and Eys framework further emphasizes cohesion as a particularly important group property, as well as group processes such as communication and coordination that ultimately lead to several individual (e

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Colin D. McLaren and Kevin S. Spink

importance for these key outcomes, understanding team processes that contribute to perceptions of cohesion can offer researchers and practitioners direction in terms of enhancing this essential group construct. Sport-team cohesion has been defined as “the tendency for a group to stick together and remain

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Albert V. Carron, Harry Prapavessis and J. Robert Grove

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of group cohesion to self-handicapping. The first issue focused on the relationship between the personality trait of self-handicapping and perceptions of group cohesion. A significant negative relationship (p < .001) was found between individual differences in the self-handicapping trait of making excuses and perceptions of the group's task cohesiveness. The second issue focused on whether group cohesion serves to moderate the relationship between the trait of self-handicapping and the use of self-handicapping strategies. The results showed that social cohesion was a significant (p < .006) moderator between the tendency to make excuses and the use of self-handicapping strategies. When social cohesion was high, the tendency to make excuses was positively related to the degree to which impediments to preparation for competition were perceived to be present.

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Ali Al-Yaaribi and Maria Kavussanu

because these behaviors are more likely to have achievement-related consequences for the recipient, and we investigated their direct and indirect relationships (through affect) with two important outcomes: task cohesion and burnout. Prosocial Behavior Although much research has examined antecedents of

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Mark A. Eys, Todd M. Loughead, Steven R. Bray and Albert V. Carron

Cohesion is an important small group variable within sport. However, the conceptualization and examination of cohesion have predominately been oriented toward adult populations. The purpose of the current study was to garner an understanding of what cohesion means to youth sport participants. Fifty-six team sport athletes (Mage = 15.63 ± 1.01 years) from two secondary schools took part in focus groups designed to understand participants’ perceptions of (a) the definition of cohesion and indicators of cohesive and noncohesive groups and (b) methods used to attempt to develop cohesion in their groups. Overall, the responses to part (a) yielded 10 categories reflecting a group’s task cohesion and 7 categories reflecting a group’s social cohesion. Finally, participants highlighted eight general methods through which their groups developed cohesion. Results are discussed in relation to a current conceptualization of cohesion and affiliation considerations within a youth sport environment.

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Alison J. Doherty and Albert V. Carron

Understanding the experiences of volunteers in amateur sport organizations is critical to their effective management of these nonprofit organizations. The purpose of this study was to explore cohesion in volunteer sport executive committees. Members (n = 117) of sport executive committees or boards completed a questionnaire that assessed perceptions of cohesion, individual satisfaction, effort, intent to quit, committee effectiveness, and a variety of individual (gender, committee, role, tenure) and organizational (committee, size, gender composition, frequency and length of meetings) variables. Task cohesion was found to be stronger than social cohesion. Only committee size was found to be associated with perceptions of cohesiveness; members of smaller committees perceived less social cohesion than members of medium and larger committees. Task and social cohesion predicted volunteer satisfaction and perceived committee effectiveness, while volunteer effort and intent to remain with the committee were predicted by task cohesion. The results are discussed in terms of their implication for theory and practice.

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Albert V. Carron and P. Chelladurai

This study attempted to identify the factors correlated with the athlete's perception of cohesiveness in individual and team sports. The five measures of cohesion used were factor analyzed and two factors were identified: individual-to-group-cohesion (composed of sense of belonging, value of membership, and enjoyment) and group-as-a-unit cohesion (composed of teamwork and closeness). These represented the dependent variables in the multiple regression design. Because cohesion is a group construct, the independent variables were chosen to reflect this aspect. They included measures of compatibility between the coach and athlete and the team and athlete as well as measures of the discrepancy in participation orientation between the coach and athlete and the team and athlete. The results supported a conclusion that cohesiveness in sport is a multidimensional construct. Further, the perception of cohesiveness is moderated by the nature of the sport task. Finally, the most important factors contributing to the perception of cohesiveness in sport teams are the discrepancies between the athlete and coach and between the athlete and team in task motivation.

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Kevin S. Spink and Albert V. Carron

The purpose of this investigation was to examine the relationship of group cohesion to adherence in women participating in exercise classes. Two measures of adherence were examined: absenteeism and lateness. Results from a stepwise discriminant analysis conducted on the absenteeism data revealed that the two absenteeism groups could be differentiated on the basis of their endorsement of individual attractions to the group-task (ATG-T) and -social (ATG-S), with individuals who were absent less reporting greater ATG-T and ATG-S than those who were absent more. The results of a stepwise discriminant analysis conducted on the lateness variable revealed that ATG-T significantly differentiated between the two groups. Individuals who were late less scored higher on ATG-T than did those who were late more often. These findings provide support for the suggestion that selected aspects of group cohesion play a role in the adherence behavior of female exercise participants.

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Lawrence R. Brawley, Albert V. Carron and W. Neil Widmeyer

Gross and Martin (1952), and Escovar and Sim (1974), proposed group resistance to disruption (GRD) as an alternative conception of cohesion, but the GRD/cohesion relationship has not been empirically examined. In Study 1, this relationship was examined using an extreme-groups design. It was a priori predicted that elite athletes perceiving high team cohesion would also perceive high GRD. The prediction was supported for three of four aspects of cohesion assessed by the Group Environment Questionnaire. Study 2 methodologically extended Study 1 and examined the GRD/cohesion relationship comparatively across physical activity groups. Elite sport, recreational sport, and fitness class groups were assessed. Participants extreme in GRD were predicted on the basis of their cohesion scores. Results indicated that the form and extent of the GRD/cohesion relationship was moderated by group type. In both studies, group task cohesion was positively related to GRD for all samples. The studies represent the first demonstration of this important but neglected relationship.

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Daniel M. Landers, Michael O. Wilkinson, Brad D. Hatfield and Heather Barber

The causal predominance of performance affecting later cohesiveness that has been shown in previous studies was examined by means of a series of statistical analyses designed to assess influence in a longitudinal panel design. Male students (N = 44) participating in a basketball league were administered cohesiveness and participation motivation scales at early, mid, and late season. In contrast to previous findings, the cross-lagged correlations showed that performance and cohesion were significantly related to each other with no causal predominance of one over the other. With the exception of the friendship measure, the cross-lagged correlations were no longer significant when earlier measures of the effect variable were controlled through partial correlation and path analysis techniques. In contrast to previous research, midseason cohesion, as measured by friendship, was a significant (p < .04) predictor of late season performance. The importance of interpersonal attraction in the recruitment and maintenance of intramural team members is discussed along with the necessity for determining, in future studies, the reliability of cohesiveness measures.