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Eduardo L. Caputo, Paulo H. Ferreira, Manuela L. Ferreira, Andréa D. Bertoldi, Marlos R. Domingues, Debra Shirley and Marcelo C. Silva

investigate whether physical activity, before or during pregnancy, is associated with the prevalence of LBP postpartum. Methods Study Design We used data from the 2015 Pelotas Birth Cohort Study. The project aimed to produce time-trend data regarding maternal and child health, lifestyle behaviors, nutritional

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Timothy J.H. Lathlean, Paul B. Gastin, Stuart V. Newstead and Caroline F. Finch

The methods of this prospective cohort study are described in another article examining difference in loads across modes of training and levels of competition. 16 Nine of the 12 players from under-18 state league clubs (N = 562; age: 17.7 [0.3], range: 16–18 y; height: 188.4 [7.1], range: 176

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Maarten Stiggelbout, Marijke Hopman-Rock, Erwin Tak, Lilian Lechner and Willem van Mechelen

This study examines dropout incidence, moment of dropout, and switching behavior in organized exercise programs for seniors in the Netherlands, as determined in a prospective cohort study (with baseline measurements at the start of the exercise program and follow-up after 6 months; N = 1,725, response rate 73%). Participants were community-living individuals 50+ who participated in different forms of organized exercise programs. The average dropout incidence was 0.15 per 6 months, which is lower than that for the general population. The dropout incidence and the timing of dropout differed substantially between the exercise programs. In total, 31% of people who dropped out of one type of exercise program switched to another type of exercise. The type of program and exercise had a strong effect on differences in this switching behavior. It is recommended that switching behavior be monitored in future studies.

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Sungchul Lee, Sangyoon Lee, Seongryu Bae, Kazuhiro Harada, Songee Jung, Keitaro Makino and Hiroyuki Shimada

longer sedentary time may be at synergistic risk of incident disability. Thus, the purpose of this large-scale prospective cohort study of individuals, who have nondialysis CKD in Japan, was to determine whether CKD with a longer sedentary time is associated with incident disability. Methods Participants

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Pedro C. Hallal, Samuel Carvalho Dumith, Felipe Fossati Reichert, Ana M.B. Menezes, Cora L. Araújo, Jonathan C.K. Wells, Ulf Ekelund and Cesar G. Victora

Objectives:

To explore cross-sectional and longitudinal associations between self-reported and accelerometry-based physical activity (PA) and blood pressure (BP) between 11 and 14 years of age.

Methods:

Prospective birth cohort study in Pelotas, Brazil. Participants were 427 cohort members who were followed up with at 11, 12, and 14 years of age, and had questionnaire data on PA and BP at 11 and 14 years, as well as accelerometry and questionnaire data on PA at 12 years. Outcome measures were continuous systolic and diastolic BP at 14 years, and change in BP from 11 to 14 years.

Results:

PA was unrelated to systolic BP in any analyses. PA measured by accelerometry at 12 years, but not questionnaire-derived PA, was inversely associated with diastolic BP at 14 years of age in fully adjusted models. Those who exceeded the 300-minutes PA threshold at all 3 visits had a 2.6 mmHg lower mean increase in DBP from 11 to 14 years compared with those classified below the threshold in all visits.

Conclusions:

Accelerometry-based PA was longitudinally inversely associated with diastolic BP. This finding was not evident when analyzing self-reported PA at a given age, suggesting a possible underestimation of the association when using subjective data.

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Nicholas M. Edwards, Gregory D. Myer, Heidi J. Kalkwarf, Jessica G. Woo, Philip R. Khoury, Timothy E. Hewett and Stephen R. Daniels

Objective:

Evaluate effects of local weather conditions on physical activity in early childhood.

Methods:

Longitudinal prospective cohort study of 372 children, 3 years old at enrollment, drawn from a major US metropolitan community. Accelerometer-measured (RT3) physical activity was collected every 4 months over 5 years and matched with daily weather measures: day length, heating/cooling degrees (degrees mean temperature < 65°F or ≥ 65°F, respectively), wind, and precipitation. Mixed regression analyses, adjusted for repeated measures, were used to test the relationship between weather and physical activity.

Results:

Precipitation and wind speed were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity (P < .0001). Heating and cooling degrees were negatively associated with total physical activity and moderate-vigorous physical activity and positively associated with inactivity (all P < .0001), independent of age, sex, race, BMI, day length, wind, and precipitation. For every 10 additional heating degrees there was a 5-minute daily reduction in moderatevigorous physical activity. For every additional 10 cooling degrees there was a 17-minute reduction in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity.

Conclusions:

Inclement weather (higher/lower temperature, greater wind speed, more rain/snow) is associated with less physical activity in young children. These deleterious effects should be considered when planning physical activity research, interventions, and policies.

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J. Jaime Miranda, Rodrigo M. Carrillo-Larco, Robert H Gilman, Jose L. Avilez, Liam Smeeth, William Checkley, Antonio Bernabe-Ortiz and the CRONICAS Cohort Study Group

Background:

Physical inactivity and sedentary behaviors have been linked with impaired health outcomes. Establishing the physical inactivity profiles of a given population is needed to establish program targets and to contribute to international monitoring efforts. We report the prevalence of, and explore sociodemographical and built environment factors associated with physical inactivity in 4 resource-limited settings in Peru: rural Puno, urban Puno, Pampas de San Juan de Miraflores (urban), and Tumbes (semiurban).

Methods:

Cross-sectional analysis of the CRONICAS Cohort Study’s baseline assessment. Outcomes of interest were physical inactivity of leisure time (<600 MET-min/week) and transport-related physical activity (not reporting walking or cycling trips) domains of the IPAQ, as well as watching TV, as a proxy of sedentarism (≥2 hours per day). Exposures included demographic factors and perceptions about neighborhood’s safety. Associations were explored using Poisson regression models with robust standard errors. Prevalence ratios (PR) and 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) are presented.

Results:

Data from 3593 individuals were included: 48.5% males, mean age 55.1 (SD: 12.7) years. Physical inactivity was present at rates of 93.7% (95% CI 93.0%–94.5%) and 9.3% (95% CI 8.3%–10.2%) within the leisure time and transport domains, respectively. In addition, 41.7% (95% CI 40.1%–43.3%) of participants reported watching TV for more than 2 hours per day. Rates varied according to study settings (P < .001). In multivariable analysis, being from rural settings was associated with 3% higher prevalence of leisure time physical inactivity relative to highly urban Lima. The pattern was different for transport-related physical inactivity: both Puno sites had around 75% to 50% lower prevalence of physical inactivity. Too much traffic was associated with higher levels of transport-related physical inactivity (PR = 1.24; 95% CI 1.01–1.54).

Conclusions:

Our study showed high levels of inactivity and marked contrasting patterns by rural/urban sites. These findings highlight the need to generate synergies to expand nationwide physical activity surveillance systems.

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Bianca Miarka, Fábio Dal Bello, Ciro J. Brito, Fabrício B. Del Vecchio, John Amtmann and Karim Chamari

use of the collected data from the official statistics of the UFC. Moreover, there are no ethical issues in analyzing or interpreting data obtained at public events, as established by previous protocols. 2 , 4 Design This retrospective cohort study adhered to guidelines of the strengthening the

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Ross Armstrong

cohort study of university dancers was to investigate whether total Beighton score can predict injury and to determine the relationship between JH and injury. The secondary aim was to report injury demographics. Methods Study Design and Participants A total of 80 participants volunteered to participate

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Abby L. Cheng, John A. Merlo, Devyani Hunt, Ted Yemm, Robert H. Brophy and Heidi Prather

. Methods Design This was a prospective descriptive cohort study involving elite female soccer athletes who had previously participated in a cross-sectional analysis that evaluated the differences in hip physical examination findings based on age (from preadolescence to adulthood) and years of soccer