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Abd-Elbasset Abaïdia, Julien Lamblin, Barthélémy Delecroix, Cédric Leduc, Alan McCall, Mathieu Nédélec, Brian Dawson, Georges Baquet and Grégory Dupont


To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage.


Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at –110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise.


Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = –0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = –0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = –0.68; 90% CI = –1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = –0.62; 90% CI = –1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes.


CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24–48 h postexercise.

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Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort and Shane Heffernan

strategy that consists of exposure to extremely cold air in temperature-controlled cryosaunas (that are maintained at −110°C to −140°C, for ∼3 min). Both PBC and WBC (whole-body cryotherapy) involve extreme cold air exposure (PBC, individuals’ heads are outside of the cryosauna and cold exposure) and have

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Jeffrey R. Doeringer, Megan Colas, Corey Peacock and Dustin R. Gatens

.0000000000000348 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000348 6. Costello J , Baker P , Minett G , Bieuzen F , Stewart I , Bleakley C . Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults . Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2015 ;( 9 ): CD010789

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A. Savoie and Jonathan Gosselin

10.1249/00005768-199103000-00008 O’Brien , C. , Freund , B.J. , Young , A.J. , & Sawka , M.N. ( 2005 ). Glycerol hyperhydration: Physiological responses during cold-air exposure . Journal of Applied Physiology, 99 ( 2 ), 515 – 521 . doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00176.2005 10

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter and Glyn Howatson

, skin and core temperature after −110°C cold air and 8°C water treatment . PLoS ONE . 2012 ; 7 : e48190 . PubMed ID: 23139763 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048190 10.1371/journal.pone.0048190 23139763 14. Gregson W , Black MA , Jones H , et al . Influence of cold water immersion on limb and

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson and Anna Melin

). Hypohydration impairs endurance exercise performance in temperate but not cold air . Journal of Applied Physiology, 99 , 1972 – 1976 . PubMed ID: 16024524 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00329.2005 10.1152/japplphysiol.00329.2005 Cox , G. , Snow , R. , & Burke , L. ( 2010 ). Race-day carbohydrate intakes of