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Abd-Elbasset Abaïdia, Julien Lamblin, Barthélémy Delecroix, Cédric Leduc, Alan McCall, Mathieu Nédélec, Brian Dawson, Georges Baquet, and Grégory Dupont


To compare the effects of cold-water immersion (CWI) and whole-body cryotherapy (WBC) on recovery kinetics after exercise-induced muscle damage.


Ten physically active men performed single-leg hamstring eccentric exercise comprising 5 sets of 15 repetitions. Immediately postexercise, subjects were exposed in a randomized crossover design to CWI (10 min at 10°C) or WBC (3 min at –110°C) recovery. Creatine kinase concentrations, knee-flexor eccentric (60°/s) and posterior lower-limb isometric (60°) strength, single-leg and 2-leg countermovement jumps, muscle soreness, and perception of recovery were measured. The tests were performed before and immediately, 24, 48, and 72 h after exercise.


Results showed a very likely moderate effect in favor of CWI for single-leg (effect size [ES] = 0.63; 90% confidence interval [CI] = –0.13 to 1.38) and 2-leg countermovement jump (ES = 0.68; 90% CI = –0.08 to 1.43) 72 h after exercise. Soreness was moderately lower 48 h after exercise after CWI (ES = –0.68; 90% CI = –1.44 to 0.07). Perception of recovery was moderately enhanced 24 h after exercise for CWI (ES = –0.62; 90% CI = –1.38 to 0.13). Trivial and small effects of condition were found for the other outcomes.


CWI was more effective than WBC in accelerating recovery kinetics for countermovement-jump performance at 72 h postexercise. CWI also demonstrated lower soreness and higher perceived recovery levels across 24–48 h postexercise.

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Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort, and Shane Heffernan

strategy that consists of exposure to extremely cold air in temperature-controlled cryosaunas (that are maintained at −110°C to −140°C, for ∼3 min). Both PBC and WBC (whole-body cryotherapy) involve extreme cold air exposure (PBC, individuals’ heads are outside of the cryosauna and cold exposure) and have

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Jeffrey R. Doeringer, Megan Colas, Corey Peacock, and Dustin R. Gatens

.0000000000000348 10.1249/MSS.0000000000000348 6. Costello J , Baker P , Minett G , Bieuzen F , Stewart I , Bleakley C . Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults . Cochrane Database Syst Rev . 2015 ;( 9 ): CD010789

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Eric D.B. Goulet, Adrien De La Flore, Félix A. Savoie, and Jonathan Gosselin

10.1249/00005768-199103000-00008 O’Brien , C. , Freund , B.J. , Young , A.J. , & Sawka , M.N. ( 2005 ). Glycerol hyperhydration: Physiological responses during cold-air exposure . Journal of Applied Physiology, 99 ( 2 ), 515 – 521 . doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00176.2005 10

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Guro Strøm Solli, Espen Tønnessen, and Øyvind Sandbakk

bronchial hyperresponsiveness among XC skiers 26 – 28 explained by damage to airways caused by frequent, high ventilation rates during training and competitions in combination with exposure to cold air. 29 As recommended, anti-inflammatory treatment was therefore started, although the specific effect of

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Susan Y. Kwiecien, Malachy P. McHugh, Stuart Goodall, Kirsty M. Hicks, Angus M. Hunter, and Glyn Howatson

, skin and core temperature after −110°C cold air and 8°C water treatment . PLoS ONE . 2012 ; 7 : e48190 . PubMed ID: 23139763 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0048190 10.1371/journal.pone.0048190 23139763 14. Gregson W , Black MA , Jones H , et al . Influence of cold water immersion on limb and

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Bethany Northeast and Tom Clifford

.1080/10408398.2019.1703642 Costello , J.T. , Baker , P.R. , Minett , G.M. , Bieuzen , F. , Stewart , I.B. , & Bleakley , C. ( 2016 ). Cochrane review: Whole-body cryotherapy (extreme cold air exposure) for preventing and treating muscle soreness after exercise in adults . Journal of Evidence-Based Medicine, 9 ( 1

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Amelia Carr, Kerry McGawley, Andrew Govus, Erik P. Andersson, Oliver M. Shannon, Stig Mattsson, and Anna Melin

). Hypohydration impairs endurance exercise performance in temperate but not cold air . Journal of Applied Physiology, 99 , 1972 – 1976 . PubMed ID: 16024524 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00329.2005 10.1152/japplphysiol.00329.2005 Cox , G. , Snow , R. , & Burke , L. ( 2010 ). Race-day carbohydrate intakes of

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Ray M. Merrill

on physical activity is illustrated in a cohort study of 372 children in the United States, where extreme hot or cold air temperature was associated with less physical activity. 11 This may be because physiological responses and endurance exercise capacity are impaired by extreme temperatures. 12 A

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of how cold air influences the immunological profile of the airways. This in part limits our ability to make recommendations about which environmental conditions are harmful to healthy athletes and at which temperatures training or racing should be modified or cancelled. Several studies have