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Magdalena Gibas-Dorna, Zuzanna Chęcińska, Emilia Korek, Justyna Kupsz, Anna Sowińska and Hanna Krauss

We determined whether cold water swimming for six consecutive months results in adaptive changes in body composition and insulin sensitivity. Thirty healthy subjects aged 50.2 ± 9.4 years were exposed to cold water at least twice a week. Body composition was determined and serum glucose and insulin served to calculate beta-cell function, insulin sensitivity, and resistance using HOMA2. Compared with control subjects, swimmers were overweight, and had greater percent body fat and beta cell function. Women had lower values of BMI, fat free mass, muscle mass, visceral adipose tissue level, and greater percent body fat than men. Increased insulin sensitivity and decreased insulin secretion and resistance from beginning to middle of swim season was observed in females and in lean subjects. Findings suggest that men and women differ in regard to body composition and response to repeated cold exposure. Cold water swimming may beneficially modulate insulin sensitivity in cold acclimated lean swimmers.

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Kayla E. Boehm and Kevin C. Miller

 = 0.23 [0.09]°C/min; 23% body fat = 0.20 [0.09]°C/min). 10 However, individuals with more fat mass tend to shiver less during cold exposure, which may result in less metabolic activity in the lean tissue and may result in faster cooling rates. 2 The influence of adiposity on T rec cooling rates in

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-athletes, Search and Rescue (SAR) workers and the military, this study assessed the performance of the Canadian military winter kit in a single whole body extreme cold exposure in a climatic chamber. Methods.— A single male participant volunteered for the study who was 59 years of age, who weighed 74 kg, who was

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Jan Kodejška, Jiří Baláš and Nick Draper

29369955 11. Wakabayashi H , Oksa J , Tipton MJ . Exercise performance in acute and chronic cold exposure . J Phys Fit Sports Med . 2015 ; 4 ( 2 ): 177 – 185 . doi:10.7600/jpfsm.4.177 10.7600/jpfsm.4.177 12. Algafly AA , George KP . The effect of cryotherapy on nerve conduction velocity

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Jessica M. Stephens, Shona L. Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Dale W. Chapman and Christopher D. Askew

:M) has also been suggested to affect thermal responses to CWI, as heat transfer is influenced by the exposed surface area relative to the mass of the athlete. 16 Although differences in BSA:M have been shown to influence thermal and cardiovascular responses to cold exposure, 13 , 17 the exact impact of

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Adam Grainger, Paul Comfort and Shane Heffernan

(5°C–15°C), immersion depth (most commonly within thoracic region and total immersion of lower limbs), and duration (CWI = 5–15 min) all differing. 11 Partial body cryotherapy (PBC), which is typically utilized within 24 hours of exercise completion, is another well-used cold exposure recovery

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Blake D. McLean, Kevin White, Christopher J. Gore and Justin Kemp

. As previous longitudinal data show that PV is suppressed during colder months, 11 this cold exposure may have contributed to lower PV. In addition to cold environments, positive heat adaptations can be blunted when heat training interventions are combined with living in hypoxia. 12 McCleave et

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Tom Clifford, Will Abbott, Susan Y. Kwiecien, Glyn Howatson and Malachy P. McHugh

cold exposure might benefit their recovery. However, it is important to note that at the outset of the study, the players did not believe that the PCM cold would be more beneficial than the PCM warm (Table  2 ). Finally, again, due to the practical constraints of working with elite athletes, the

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

water measurement of human energy expenditure during exercise at high altitude . American Journal of Physiology, 266 ( 3 Pt 2 ), R966 – 971 . PubMed ID: 8160893 doi:10.1152/ajpregu.1994.266.3.R966 Jett , D.M. , Adams , K.J. , & Stamford , B.A. ( 2006 ). Cold exposure and exercise metabolism

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Karl Fullam, Brian Caulfield, Garrett F. Coughlan, Wayne McNulty, David Campbell and Eamonn Delahunt

. Page 29 Law 7. 2013 . http://www.fifa.com/mm/document/footballdevelopment/refereeing/81/42/36/log2013en_neutral.pdf . Accessed May 6 2014. 48. Mäkinen TM , Rintamäki H , Korpelainen JT , et al . Postural sway during single and repeated cold exposures . Aviat Space Environ Med . 2005 ; 76