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Francisco Tavares, Martyn Beaven, Júlia Teles, Dane Baker, Phil Healey, Tiaki B. Smith and Matthew Driller

modalities in their routines. 1 , 2 , 5 Previous literature has identified cold-water modalities as one of the most common recovery strategies implemented by elite rugby athletes. 1 , 2 The exposure to cold water decreases skin, core, and muscle temperature, 6 leading to vasoconstriction, and consequently

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Ken D. Sumida, Marcia B. Greenberg and Janeen M. Hill


The effectiveness of thermal modalities on pain relief should be short lived.


To examine the effectiveness of hot and cold gel packs in reducing de-layed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS) 30 min after treatment.


Participants performed eccentric contractions of the nondominant elbow flexors, returned 48 hr later, and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments (n = 17–18 per group): a 20-min application of a hot, cold, or room-temperature gel pack or no treatment.


Pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS) before and 48 hr after exercise and 30 min after the treatment.


All groups demonstrated a significant (P < .05) elevation in their VAS 48 hr after the exercise, 0.10 ± 0.04 cm (initial) vs. 3.27 ± 0.24 cm (48 hr later). Only the hot-pack treatment group indicated a significant (P < .05) reduction in pain: 1.66 ± 0.30 cm (after treatment).


Superficial heat can attenuate DOMS 30 min after treatment.

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Jessica M. Stephens, Ken Sharpe, Christopher Gore, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Nathan Versey, Jeremiah Peiffer, Rob Duffield, Geoffrey M. Minett, David Crampton, Alan Dunne, Christopher D. Askew and Shona L. Halson

Cold-water immersion (CWI) is a widely practiced recovery modality aiming to reduce fatigue and facilitate postexercise recovery. 1 It is thought that the combination of cold temperature and hydrostatic pressure promotes reductions in tissue temperatures and blood flow, facilitating subsequent

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Jan Kodejška, Jiří Baláš and Nick Draper

Cold water immersion (CWI) is included as a recovery protocol for many sports. 1 Positive effects of CWI have been observed after endurance exercise to failure such as for cycling, 2 running, 3 or rock climbing, 4 , 5 however, other research has not supported this finding. 1 Consequently

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Connor A. Burton and Christine A. Lauber

decreases, heart rate decreases, and stroke volume increases. 4 Interventions using various forms of cold mediums (e.g., cold water immersion [CWI], 5 – 12 cooling vests, 5 – 7 cold fluid ingestion, 5 – 7 and cool misting 6 , 7 ) have proven to reduce thermal strain and fatigue for endurance exercise in

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Kim Beals, Katherine A. Perlsweig, John E. Haubenstriker, Mita Lovalekar, Chris P. Beck, Darcie L. Yount, Matthew E. Darnell, Katelyn Allison and Bradley C. Nindl

Mountain warfare cold weather (MWCW) training is essential to prepare military forces for operations in harsh environmental conditions. Rough terrain, inclement weather, transporting heavy loads, and carrying all food and fluids needed for the mission increase the physiological and operational

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Francesco Campa, Hannes Gatterer, Henry Lukaski and Stefania Toselli

respiration. 7 Recently, Gatterer et al 1 suggested that elimination of these confounding factors by cold shower application would facilitate the use of BIVA to assess postexercise fluid changes. One limitation of this study, however, was the use of an uncontrolled exposure of the cold application (ie

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Jesús Seco-Calvo, Juan Mielgo-Ayuso, César Calvo-Lobo and Alfredo Córdova

Several physical therapy methods were used as postexercise recovery strategies, alleviating musculoskeletal alterations secondary to training and competition. Among these interventions, contrast therapy—which alternates between hot and cold treatment modalities 1 —whole-body cryotherapy, and cold

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Jessica M. Stephens, Shona L. Halson, Joanna Miller, Gary J. Slater, Dale W. Chapman and Christopher D. Askew

Cold-water immersion (CWI) is a popular recovery strategy routinely used by athletes to hasten the body’s return to its preexercise state. 1 Recently, the popularity of CWI in practical settings has led to increased research. 2 Studies to date have focused predominantly on the recovery of

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Lesley J. White, Rudolph H. Dressendorfer, Eric Holland, Sean C. McCoy and Michael A. Ferguson

We examined the acute effect of cold-water temperature on post-exercise energy intake (EI) for 1 h. In a randomized, crossover design, 11 men (25.6 ± 5 y) exercised for 45 min on a submersed cycle ergometer at 60 ± 2% VO2max in 33°C (neutral) and 20° (cold) water temperatures, and also rested for 45 min (control). Energy expenditure (EE) was determined using indirect calorimetry before, during, and after each condition. Following exercise or rest, subjects had free access to a standard assortment of food items of known caloric value. EE was similar for the cold and neutral water conditions, averaging 505 ± 22 (± standard deviation) and 517 ± 42 kcal, respectively (P = NS). EI after the cold condition averaged 877 ± 457 kcal, 44% and 41% higher (P < 0.05) than for the neutral and resting conditions, respectively. Cold-water temperature thus stimulated post-exercise EI. Water temperature warrants consideration in aquatic programs designed for weight loss.