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Jennifer Ostrowski, C. Collin Herb, James Scifers, Teraka Gonzalez, Amada Jennings and Danvirg Breton

Thermotherapy has several physiological effects that are beneficial to the healing process, including increased metabolism, 1 increased blood flow, 1 , 2 decreased pain and muscle spasm, 3 – 6 decreased tissue stiffness, and increased collagen extensibility. 4 – 7 It has been recommended that

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Kara N. Gange, Michael C. Kjellerson and Christiane J. Berdan

(mild heating) causes mild inflammation and accelerates the metabolic rate, whereas a 2–3°C increase (moderate heating) reduces muscle spasm, pain, and chronic inflammation and increases blood flow within the tissue. Vigorous heating (≥4°C increase) inhibits sympathetic activity and increases collagen